Tips / How To

Q&A: Improve Productivity of Your SAP Controlling Implementation

SAP Controlling

This presentation with Ashish Sampat, Expert Fixer and FI/CO Consultant, will cover:

  • Evaluate the Right Cost Object to use in your company
  • Discover how you can use a separate GR/IR account for Intercompany transactions
  • Learn how to automate WIP, Variance, Settlement transactions
  • Find out how to capture a Trading Partner on relevant transactions
  • Utilize the Material Status field in reporting and analysis

Watch the prerecorded webcast by pressing play:

GET ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AND MANY MORE by watching the webcast video above.

Q&A questions answered by Ashish Sampat.


Q: We already use Process Orders in our current SAP system. We have acquired a business unit that is on another SAP system, but they use Production Orders. We now want to migrate them on our SAP platform. We are wondering if there is any value in have this new business unit switch to Process Orders when they move to our system?

Q: Is it possible to setup separate GR/IR Account for each type of material – say Raw, Packaging, Supplies, Semi-Finished, Finished Materials?


Q: We are planning to implement separate GR/IR for Intercompany. However, we do not know how to handle historical transactions that are open at the time of go-live. Do you have any suggestions on how to handle them?


Q: Our company has struggled with the performance of WIP, Variance and Settlement jobs – sometimes they take 3-4 hours to complete, thereby delaying our close at times. Apart from running these resource-intensive jobs at off-peak times, what other suggestions do you have to overcome this issue?

Q: We do want to see Trading Partner captured on Intercompany Transactions and want to activate the user exit. However, we do not know what will happen to clearing of earlier transactions. Is there a way we can incorporate a date logic?

Q: Material Status sounds like a useful functionality, but is it correct to state that it is more of a cross-functional feature than merely a Controlling feature?


Q: The Order Settlement jobs can sometimes take a long time, are there any tips to reduce the run-times?

Q: In table t030 how do you map from a MM Movement Type to the MM Transaction/ Account Modifier?


Q: Are these features are still valid and applicable in S/4HANA? 

Q: Is there anything particular in S_ALR_87013127 that use to identify orders that missed closing?

Q: It is hard to read the table of transactions on slide number 7 (cost object: transaction codes).  How can I obtain a copy of the table?


Q&A: What’s New in Transfer Pricing and Actual Costing in S/4 HANA

SAP Consulting


This presentation with Janet Salmon, Chief Product Owner Management Accounting at SAP, will cover:

  • What are the latest changes to Transfer Pricing and Actual Costing in S/4 HANA?
  • How is Material Ledger Connected with the Universal Journal?
  • What are the Currency and Valuation options for Material Ledger in S/4 HANA?
  • What is the difference between Single Valuation and Multi Valuation Ledgers
  • What Fiori reports can be utilized for Actual Costing and Transfer Pricing?

Watch the prerecorded webcast by pressing play:

Q&A questions answered by Janet Salmon.

Q: Do we need to convert to ML before moving to S/4 HANA?

A: No you do not. The conversion to ML will take place automatically as you convert to S/4HANA. However, if you want to add valuation views (such as introducing group valuation) you should do that prior to converting to S/4HANA.

Q: When we move to S/4 HANA, and we have custom reports will we need to modify the reports to map to the new tablets or are there new compatibility views?

A: No Compatibility views for Actual Costing.

Q: If we move to S/4 HANA and we want to activate group valuation, do we need to do an SLO beforehand or can we convert automatically when we go to S/4 HANA?

A: It is best to do the SLO conversion in your local system and then migrate. It is on the roadmap to activate Group Valuation when you convert to S/4 HANA, but there is not yet a scheduled delivery date for such tools.

Q: Since there are now 8 currencies in the Universal Journal, does that mean that we can combine each of these currencies with any of the valuation views?

A: In principle, yes. You have always had the choice of keeping group valuation in group currency (31) or local currency (11) and some customers are looking at keeping group valuation in functional area currency. Beware however that Actual Costing currently only handles three currencies and any additional currencies will be converted on the fly at the time of the posting run.

Q: Will the Actual Costing have the availability to integrate FIFO valuation via using an alternative valuation method thru config using the "Key Figure Scheme" defining an External ending Inventory Valuation ....using FIFO.

A: You can set up an alternative valuation run that reads FIFO values or enter values for valuation in table CKMLPR_EB.

Q: Do we have information by storage location?

A: "In the Material tables you do, but no, Actual Costing does not split by storage location, only by Procurement alternative, and type of stock.
Q: Can we turn on Transfer Pricing & Multiple Valuations AFTER an S/4 Conversion / Migration?

A: At the moment, no. We get a lot of questions about this, but right now you need to do the SLO first and then migrate

Q: Please repeat OSS note numbers again.

A: You can always find OSS notes relating to the S/4 conversion by searching S4TWL. See,, and

Q: As ML will be active for all company codes, will CKM3N be available for units without actual cost?

A: If units do not have actual cost, the Information will exist in CKM3N but you will not have the cost component split and no quantity structure being updated.

Q: Having calculated the IC Profit does SAP provide any support for deferred tax calculation on Profit in Transfer Price till the goods are sold to 3rd party.

A: If units do not have actual cost, the Information will exist in CKM3N but you will not have the cost component split and no quantity structure being updated.

Q: I assume the IC profit can only be eliminated if the affiliate entities are on the same instance of SAP, correct?

A: At the moment, the requirement for multilevel Actual Costing is that all entities are on the same instance. Central Finance can be used, to bring the financials into a single instance, but at the moment, you cannot eliminate IC profit if the entities are on different instances.

Q: When converting to S4 Hana, only the current year, plus the previous year, plus Dec of the year before that is migrated to S4, why only those periods?

A: That sounds like a Central Finance conversion, where only data from the most recent years is included in the initial load. If it is a Universal Journal conversion it should convert all the history (every document on the system).

Q: If my consolidation tool is BPC where the elimination occurs, can the group currency in S/4 incorporate these eliminations from BPC?

A: Elimination will happen in the consolidation tool. Going forward SAP working out what you can do locally versus in the consolidation tool. There is movement in this area to determine where you can do consolidation. The difference between a value chain consolidation and a typical legal consolidation is that with Group Valuation you are looking at elimination on a very granular material by material level.

Q: Is there any tool today or on the roadmap that helps drive transfer pricing determination?

A: For the actual calculation for transfer prices, at the moment there is no tool on the Roadmap. You would need to use a separate tool for this. Things might change but not at the moment.

Q: We produce aircraft, we activated ML-ACT but company is thinking on deactivate ACT because of the complexity, specifically on the accounting side. What is your recommendation? Is going to be less complex on HANA?

A: We would need to look at the situation specifically as it requires a little more information to understand the requirement better. It is hard to make a generalization without understanding the business. It should be easier because everything is on one table, but we need more information.

Q: Has any move been made to make inventory issued to vendor or inventory issued to customer non-plant specific?

A: Not that I know of. But we may need more background of the requirement.

Q: Is GAAP conversion inbuilt (i.e. IFRS/ Global GAAP vs Local GAAP views)?

A: You can add additional ledgers retrospectively now (subsequent implementation of an additional accounting principle).

SAP HANA Implementation Guide: Disaster Recover Concepts

Backup Using Storage Snapshots

Storage snapshots are taken at storage level and are a backup or copy of all disks in a storage group at the same point in time.

Storage snapshots have the following benefits:

  • They can be created with minimal impact on the system. This is because storage snapshots are created in the storage system and do not consume database services.
  • Recovery from a storage snapshot is faster than recovery from a data backup.
  • An SAP HANA database can be recovered to a specified point in time using a storage snapshot only or using storage snapshot in combination with log backups. This enables you to recover to a specified point in time.
ERPfixers Help

Storage snapshots and SAP HANA MDC

Backup and recovery using snapshots is not yet available for Multi Database Containers (MDC). There are two types of snapshots: database aware and database unaware snapshots.

Database Unaware Snapshots

A database unaware snapshot is a storage snapshot taken without notifying the database. When a recovery to the snapshot is done and the database restarted, the database assumes that a power-failure occurred and performs an online recovery. Database unaware snapshots are, by definition, inconsistent because the snapshot was taken while the database was running.

Database Aware Snapshots

A database aware snapshot is a storage snapshot which, when taken, notifies the database. As the database is warned, it can save a consistent state to disk. Database aware snapshots are, therefore, preferred over database unaware snapshots.

From an SAP HANA perspective, the storage snapshot captures the content of the SAP HANA data area at a particular point in time. Only use database aware snapshots. A snapshot is created by first creating an internal database snapshot. The database snapshot provides a view of the database with a consistent state at the point in time when it was created. The database snapshot is used to ensure the consistent state of the storage snapshot, regardless of the physical layout of the data area with respect to the number of disks, controllers, etc.

The following steps are needed to create a Storage Snapshot (see Figure 4.3):

  1. Use the SAP HANA Studio or the Command Line Tool to initiate the database snapshot. DISASTER RECOVERY
  2. Use storage tools to create a storage snapshot.
  3. Use the SAP HANA Studio or the Command Line Tool to confirm that the storage snapshot was created successfully. An ID is written to the backup catalog and the snapshot is released.
  Figure 4.3: Steps for database aware snapshots

Figure 4.3: Steps for database aware snapshots

SAP Help

Integration between SAP HANA and Storage

Database snapshots can be created via the SAP HANA Studio or the SQL command line. Both options are easy to use. For daily backups, the creation of the database snapshot will have to be automated by developing two scripts; one script to initiate the database snapshot and another to release the same snapshot. Both scripts will then have to be called from within the storage solution. Fortunately, most storage vendors provide such scripts by default. 


This excerpt is from the SAP HANA – Implementation Guide complements of Espresso Tutorials!

Q&A: What You Should Know About Material Ledger in S/4 HANA

SAP Consulting


This presentation by Paul Ovigele and Rogerio Faleiros will cover:

  • Why Material Ledger is Mandatory with S/4 HANA
  • The difference between using Material ledger for Actual Costing and Parallel Valuation
  • The improvements that have been made to the Actual Costing closing cockpit
  • The improved reporting that exists for Material ledger within SAP S/4HANA
  • Migrating to Material Ledger in S/4 HANA

Watch the prerecorded webcast by pressing play:

Q&A questions answered by ERPfixers expert Fixers Rogerio Faleiros & Paul Ovigele.

Q: So any MB type transaction where a BDC is used will need to be reworked then correct? 

A: Yes, any transactions that began with MB… (e.g. MB1C, MB1A, etc.) are now replaced with MIGO, and therefore any BDC sessions would need to be updated accordingly. It is better to transfer this transaction to a BADI or BAPI

Q: Can we use material ledger with different fiscal year variant than core ledger (FI) ? 

A: There is no concept of a Fiscal year variant in Material Ledger itself. Fiscal year variants are based on Ledgers in the Universal Journal. If you use Multi-valuation Ledger, then your Fiscal Year variant of the leading ledger will be the same in all Valuations of material ledger. If you use Single Valuation Ledger, then you should be able to have different Fiscal Year variants for the different ledgers (which represent separate valuation views in the Material ledger).

Q: Another question is do we need to close actual costing before we start posting in new period?

A: No. In both S/4 HANA and ECC, you will normally be closing actual costing after the new period has been opened. One of the reasons for this is that the Actual Costing “Post Closing” step reversed the inventory postings with a posting date of the beginning of the new period, therefore this new period needs to be open.

Q: Does ML in S/4 HANA allow negative inventory?

A: ML in S/4 HANA allows negative inventory, however, this needs to be specified in the Material Master and MM Period opening program.

Q: Is it easier to change Material Type or Valuation Classes than in ECC6? 

A: As far as I know, there is no difference with the process of changing Material Type or Valuation classes, as with in ECC 6.0.

Q: The same question about actual material ledger activated and Transfer Price, any point for attention?

A: The configuration for activating Material Ledger is the same as in ECC. One difference is that you need to specify the FI currency types that you want to use in ML. this is because FI now has eight extra currency types, while ML has only three. Transfer Pricing has been much more streamlined with S/4 HANA and you now have the option of having a separate ledger for each valuation view.

Q: Can you explain the differences from ECC to 1709 for how to setup LIFO or other balance sheet valuations?  Any thoughts on how to automate LIFO calculations?

A: To calculate LIFO you will need to define an accounting principle and assign LIFO method to it, and this assinged to material ledger.

Q: Everything was shown using the classic GUI.  Are there Fiori apps to process material ledger yet?

A: There are a few Fiori apps such as “Material Inventory Values” which can be used to view the data in the ML tables, however, there isn’t a Fiori App to process Material  Ledger as of yet.

Q: Are the MBEW EBEW tables going to be maintained as "views" in S/4Hana, or are they deleted?

A: Yes, the MBEW, EBEW, etc. tables will be maintained as compatibility views so that they can still be read with custom programs.

Q: Similar question, are the old ML tables MLHD, MLIT CKMLPP maintained as "views so that old programs & reports still work in S/4Hana?

A: Yes, these old ML tables are also maintained as compatibility views in S/4 HANA.

Q: Do we have to do new ML config before we execute the Migration steps?

A: yes, you at least need to reconfigure the currency type, if you used 0000. Also there is a new account modification PRL which is to be set up as the offset account key that is used for cost center credit posting (GBB-AUI).

Q: Is it mandatory to activate ML if I don't have it in my company?

Yes, it is mandatory to activate ML when you move to S/4 HANA even if you did not have it in ECC. Remember however, that Material Ledger is replacing the tables that were used in ECC for Inventory Valuation, therefore there probably is already relevant data in your current system for Material Ledger, even if you do not have it activated. Material Ledger is now the new subledger for inventory valuation but you do not have to activate Actual Costing, if it is not needed.

Q: What is the impact of activating ML in ECC before moving to S/4 if you don't have ML activated for materials?

A: If you want to activate ML in ECC before moving to S/4, you will need to perform a conversion of Inventory Valuation and Purchase Order history tables to Material Ledger tables. Note that, this this will need to be done anyway when you eventually move to S/4 HANA. The difference is that converting before hand gives the business some time to get used to material Ledger functionality, fosters user adoption, and provides historical information that can be accessed when you move to S/4 HANA. Note that if you Activate Actual Costing in ECC, the Actual Costing Run (CKMLCP) will be revamped when you move to S/4 HANA.

Q: What are steps we need to do before migrating ML from ECC to S4 Hana?

A: ML is now part of the conversion steps for S/4 HANA, so the ML activation will be included in the migration process. What is more important is that you understand how you can leverage Material Ledger functionality, and plan and design your S/4 HANA migration accordingly. You can take advantage of the Multi-valuation or Single valuation ledger approach; Company Code transfer pricing; Profit Center Transfer Pricing; Alternative Valuation Run to cumulate prices over several periods; Revaluing Inventory according to FIFO, LIFO, or NRV prices; and much more. Once you come up with the functionalities that will be beneficial to your business, you can then set up the system accordingly.

Q: Do we have view to old tables?

A: You can view the old Inventory and ML tables because the custom programs which accessed these tables will be able to access the compatibility views of these tables so that there is no disruption. However, you will not be able to write new data to these old tables.

Q: We use FIFO calculation and are there any steps we need to take care during Migration?  

A: No it is the same process as a company that does not use FIFO.

Q: We are moving to Hana Enterprise Cloud first just o get to  more current platform than our old ECC6.  will upgrade of material ledger come along with that, or not until we do the upgrade to S/4 Hana which will follow this system upgrade?

A: The new functionality of Material Ledger is only available with S/4 HANA. Even if you have HEC, this will only enable faster processing and reporting in the current ECC system but not add any extra functionality.

Q: Hi - Does the COGS split happen for the COGS variances also since ML has the variances data for this?

A: As of now, the COGS split (or Cost Component Split for Cost of Sales) does not happen with COGS variances. Instead, the Variance Categories (Input Price, Input Quantity, Resource Usage, etc.) can now be mapped to separate accounts in the Universal Journal.

Q: Will there be new functionality on non-distributed items?

A: Due to the revamped processing logic in Material Ledger on S/4 HANA, the “Not Distributed” items have been seriously reduced.

Q: Can we have material ledger activate for variant material (variant configuration active)?

A: Yes, you can have Material Ledger active along with Variant Configuration, in both ECC and S/4 HANA.

Q: We are currently on SAP ECC 6.0 on HANA with material ledger active. Will we have any disruption if we migrate to S/4?

A: No, there should not be any problem with migrating to ML on S/4 when you are already on the HANA database. You may not see much of a difference with the processing speed, since you already have the fast database, but you will go through the S/4 migration as normal and be able to leverage the new functionalities.

Q: We are on SAP ECC 6.0 on HANA with Material Ledger and Split Valuation active. Any anything we need to worry?

A: There should be no negative impact of having Material ledger and Split valuation when you move to S/4 HANA.

Q: Does ML or Actual costing support LIFO calc?

A: Yes, this is based on accounting principle.

Q: Does ML have capability to have LIFO valuation in parallel with FIFO valuation?

A: You have the option to have one material ledger run (e.g. CKMLCP) as FIFO and a second one using alternative valuation run (e.g. CKMLCPAVR) as LIFO.

Q: In ECC, the customer is able to choose whether the revolution will be done inside or outside ML. Is that option available in ML S/4 HANA?

A: If you use Actual Costing with S/4 HANA, you will need to run the Actual Costing program every month in ML. You can choose whether you want to revalue inventory with the actual cost or not. If however, you do not want to revalue inventory within ML (but say, in another system) then this will need to be a separate customized process.

Q: In ECC, the customer is able to use one single PRD Account. 3 or 4 slides before the end of the presentation, there is a slide with some hints about variances accounts and I am wondering whether in S/4 HANA we would be able to configure more than one single PRD Account. Is that possible? For instance: Price Variance, Freight Variance, etc...

A: At the moment, there is still no distinction between the cost components of a Price Variance Account. The COGS accounts can be split into different accounts by Cost Components, but this logic does not yet apply to inventory variance accounts. The slide being referred to is about the combining of single and multilevel price and exchange rate variances, and thereby not needing account keys PRV and KDV.

Q: I am presuming there is a package of transactions for conversion from ECC to S/4 HANA. Is that correct? Any information about it?

A: Yes , with the S/4 HANA migration there is a specific cockpit for Material ledger. This can be found in SAP Notes 2694618 and 2352383

Q&A questions answered by ERPfixers expert Fixers Rogerio Faleiros & Paul Ovigele.


Author: Rogerio Faleiros

Rogerio is an independent SAP consultant specializing in controlling functionality. He has worked with SAP technology for more than 10 years, implementing controlling solutions in the food processing, chemical, construction and agribusiness industries. Roger has been working with IFRS and integration with product costing and material ledger minimizing the impact of the changes in SAP for companies in different locations.He has participated in rollouts in several countries such as United States, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Turkey, UK, France, Spain, Egypt, UAE, India Sweden and Finland. Rogerio has an MBA in IT from Getulio Vargas Foundation and is a frequent presenter providing training for new consultants in Brazil. Rogerio is the author of Configuring Controlling in SAP ERP.

All New SAP S/4 HANA Transaction Codes

  This excerpt is from our friends at Michael Management Corp.

This excerpt is from our friends at Michael Management Corp.

A few months ago, we received a live chat on our website asking if we had a list of all SAP transaction codes – we didn’t and so I wrote a blog where you can download all SAP tcodes. This blog turned out to be the most visited article of the year – who would have known?

Then recently someone asked me about this list on our Twitter feed, specifically, if our list also included the transaction codes for SAP’s newest release, S/4 HANA (it didn’t). So I went into our S/4 system and downloaded all transaction codes to an Excel spreadsheet and compared the 2 lists.

As a reminder, a transaction code in SAP is a shortcut to an activity. For example, AS01 is the code to create a new fixed asset master record, FB01 lets you post a financial document or use ME21 to create a purchase order, etc. pp.

You can see a complete list of all transaction codes by displaying the contents of table TSTCT – this is where SAP stores all tcodes and their description in all installed languages.

It turns out that there are about 7600 new transactions in S/4 (and that’s on top of the roughly 100,000 tcodes that exist in SAP’s ECC 6 release) …that’s somewhat surprising to me – I would have guessed a lot higher.

Anyway, download all new SAP S/4 transaction codes and take a look for yourself.

Once downloaded, play around with it – for example, you can search for the string /ui2/ (=user interface 2) to find all new Fiori-related transaction codes quickly.

I hope you’ll find the list useful and, as always, please comment below and share this post.


Thomas Michael

SCM Refresh


This document is designed specifically during System Refresh for SCM system. This document will be helpful for SAP BASIS consultant to give all basic knowledge of SCM System Refresh. If we want to refresh our system legacy data with production data in quality or pre-production, we perform the system refresh. Example copying production data to quality or pre-production environment. Here production will be online during this activity.


SCM System Refresh: 

In this process we copy the system from the production to lower environment like Pre-production or sandbox for below purposes. 

  1. Before any cutover/go live for testing. 
  2. Before Any upgrade of Enhancement package or support pack stack upgrade or version upgrade. 
  3. Companies want their SAP test system to look like their production system for better testing. 


Step 1 Screen shot of some transaction to compare after refresh 

  1. STMS: Transport Domain, System Overview, Transport Configuration, Transport Parameter 
  2. SCC4: Client status open / close. 
  3. AL11: Transport directory location. 
  4. RZ03: Operation Mode, Current work process status, instance and startup profile location rom instance status 
  5. RZ12: 
  6. SMLG: 
  7. WE20: Partner profile. 
  8. SM59: 
  9. SS02: 
  10. SLICENSE for later use of Hardware Key 
  11. DB13 
  12. FILE 
  13. SLDAPICUST note which system 
  14. STRUSTSSO2 see which tickets are active 

Step 2 Screen shot of some table using SE16 

  1. EDPP1 
  3. USR02 Number of entries (to compare after import) 
  4. V_TBDLS 
  7. TVARVC 

Step 3 SM37: download all BTC info into .XLS 

Step 4 SPAD: Printer Export as .txt format 

Step 5 Export Background Jobs: 

Export tables: exp: then put in a dump file 
















Step 6 RFC export: 






Step 7 Export AL11 table USER_DIR 

Step 8 SCC8 User Master Data Export 

Users master data of that client exported so the user of production not reflect to the target system.

Up to 3 requests are created, depending on the data selected and available: 

1. "XXXKO00012" for transporting cross-client data, if you have selected this 

2. "XXXKT00012" for transporting client-specific data 

3. "XXXKX00012" for transporting client-specific texts, provided texts are available in this client 

SAP Help


1. SCC8 

2. Choose profile SAP_USER and Target system as same client. 

3. Schedule job immediately with no printer Dialog 

4. Continue 

5. SCC3 go to Export 

6. Wait till finished. 

Refresh Activity: 

Removing data files of XXX & coping PRD data (user orasid)

cd /oracle/XXX/ 

rm -r sapdata1 

rm -r sapdata2 

rm -r sapdata3 

rm -r sapdata4 

rm -r origlogA 

rm -r origlogB 

rm -r mirrlogA 

rm -r mirrlogB 

cd /oracle/XXX/ (we are here only so no need to do it (user orasid)) 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata1 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata2 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata3 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata4 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/origlogA . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/origlogB . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/mirrlogA . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/mirrlogB . & 

Post Step 

STEP 1 Create Control File on Source System 

  • su – ora<Target SID> 
  • sqlplus / nolog 
  • connect / as sysdba 
  • alter database backup controlfile to trace; 
  • cd /oracle/SID/saptrace/usertrace 
  • cp <latest-file>.trc SIDcontrol.sql 
  • scp SIDcontrol.sql to Source system  

STep 2 Edit Control File on Target System 

  • Chown orasid:dba SIDcontrol.sql 

Step 3 Login to database & recover the database from controlfile.


  1. oraxxx>Sqlplus / as sysdba; 

  2. startup nomount 
  3. @/xxx/xxx.sql 
  4. Recover database using backup controlfile until cancel; 
  5. alter database open resetlogs; 
  6. alter tablespace PSAPTEMP add tempfile '/oracle/XXX/sapdata1/temp_1/temp.data1' size 540M reuse autoextend on next 20000000 maxsize 10000M; 
  7. Shutdown Immediate; 
  8. startup mount; 
  9. alter database noarchivelog; 
  10. alter database open; 
  11. alter database rename global_name to XXX 
  12. @/oracle/post_copy.sql 

Step 4 We need to drop the “OPS$” users of PRD system & need to create the users with current SID.


1. Select username from dba_users; (it will show list of all OPS$ user and create this user again with XXX sid and provide the role related to it) 

  • SYS 
  • SAPSR3 
  • OUTLN 
  • DIP 

2. Drop user OPS$ORAXXP cascade; 

3. Drop user OPS$XXPADM cascade; 

4. Drop user OPS$SAPSERVICEXXP cascade; 

5. Create user OPS$ORAXXX identified externally externally default tablespace SYSTEM temporary Tablespace PSAPREMP; 

6. Create user OPS$XXXADM identified externally externally default tablespace SYSTEM temporary Tablespace PSAPREMP; 

7. Create user OPS$SAPSERVICEXXX identified externally externally default tablespace SYSTEM temporary Tablespace PSAPREMP; 

8. Grant DBA, Connect, Resource to OPS$XXXADM; 

9. Grant exp_full_database to OPS$ORAXXX; 




13. Commit; 

14. @Sapmnt/xxx/exe/sapconn_role.sql (it will disconnect SQLPLUS) 

15.sqlplus / as sysdba; 

16. @Sapmnt/xxx/exe/sapdba_role.sql SR3 (it will disconnect SQLPLUS) 

17. logout 

18. su - xxxadm 

19. R3Trans -d 

Step 5 Drop PRD tables & reimport the exported tables of the old system. 


  • 1.sqlplus / as sysdba; 
  • 2.@/oracle/xxx/batch-table-drop.sql; 
  • 3.Drop table sapsr3.USER_DIR; 
  • 4. imp 
  • 6.sapsr3 
  • 7.******* 

Step 6 After importing Old table data login to SAP & do post stepsSE06 

  • Database copy or database migration 
  • Do u want to reinstall CTS--> yes 
  • Source system of Database copy--> XXP 
  • Change original from XXP to XXX 
  • Change the transport System not configured--> ok 
  • Do u want to Change original from XXP to XXX --> YES 
  • Delete TMS Configuration--> NO 
  •  Delete the original version of transport routes--> NO 
SAP How To

Step 7 STMS: Restore as old system

  • System: XXX 
  • Description: XXX SAndbox 
  • Save 

Step 8 BDLS: New logical system Name: xxxclnt500 

  • Conversion of client dependent and client independent Tables 
  • Table to be converted: ** 
  • Continue with conversion Anyway. YES 

Step 9 Import user master 

SAP Help

Step 10 Delete cancelled and Finished jobs 

  • Go to SE38 Run RSBTCDEL. Execute in Background -> Create a Variant named “REFRESH” with the following properties: 
  • Jobs from all users (*), Days 01, Fill three boxes at the bottom with ‘X’. 
  • Be sure to check ‘delete with forced mode’ 
  • Save the variant, go a step back and click “Execute Immediately.” 
SAP How To


The Refresh process will provide latest data in quality or pre-production environment which will helpful in rectifying error before production. I recommend to perform this activity every quarter or before any major changes and go live. 

Q&A: Analytics-Based Enterprise Performance Management

SAP Help

Watch the prerecorded webcast by pressing play:


This presentation by Gary Cokins, a leading practitioner and author will cover:

  • How strategy maps and their companion balanced scorecards communicate strategic objectives with target-setting to help cross-functional employee teams align their behavior to the strategy and better collaborate.
  • Why measures of channel and customer profitability and customer value are now superceding profit and service-line measures – and shifting from product to customer-focused organizations including future potential value – customer lifetime value.
  • How activity-based cost management (ABC/M) provides not only accurately traced calculated costs (relative to arbitrary broad-averaged cost allocations), but more importantly provides cost transparency back to the work processes and consumed resources, and to what drivers cause work activities.
  • Reforming the broken annual budgeting process with performance based budgeting that links strategy to operations and is process volume sensitive rather than simply incremental at each cost center.
  • How EPM/CPM also applies to public sector government to understand their “output costs” and better serve citizens.
  • Why business analytics, with emphasis on predictive analytics and pro-active decision making, is becoming a competitive advantage differentiator and an enabler for trade-off analysis.
  • How all levels of management can quickly see and assess how they are doing on what is important – typically with only a maximum of three key performance indicators (KPIs).
  • How to integrate performance measurement scorecards and ABC/M data with:
    • Strategy formulation.
    • Process-based thinking and operational productivity improvement.
    • Channel/customer profitability and value analysis and CRM.
    • Supply chain management.
  • Quality and lean management (Six Sigma, cost of quality).

Explanation of FI Line Item Texts created by Material Ledger

Explanation of FI Line Item Texts created by Material Ledger.png

If you use Material Ledger’s Actual Costing, then you would know that the Post Closing Step creates accounting documents depending on how the variances for the Material have been distributed. For example, a material with a price (or exchange rate) difference of $100 could be sold, scrapped, used in a production order that is complete, used in a production order that is not complete, transferred to another plant, or left in inventory. And this only refers to the differences that are created on the material itself (single-level), and not the differences that are transferred from other materials (multilevel) which have their own slew of Material Ledger postings. 

Because of this, it is easy to be overwhelmed by the volume of postings that are created by the Material Ledger’s closing entry and what they mean. Some companies choose to label the General ledger accounts appropriately to indicate what the posting is for, but if you do not understand the posting, it is easy to incorrectly label the General Ledger account. Also, you may not need a separate general ledger account for each scenario as that may lead to more General Ledger accounts than you need, and may create even more confusion.

Believe it or not, SAP does try to provide guidance on what each Material Ledger posting is for. It does so by inserting texts into each line item posting to indicate what it is (as described in SAP Note 2397606). The problem, is that these text explanations are sometimes cryptic and do not provide much clarity on what the posting is for. Also, there is very little information (online or elsewhere) that gives a more meaningful explanation for these text descriptions.

In the table below, I will try to explain (as best as I can) what texts are shown in the FI line items created by Material Ledger and what they mean.

SAP Material Ledger
SAP Material Ledger

Q&A: It’s that time of the year! Recommendations for a successful Year-End Closing

ERPfixers Help

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Get answers to the following questions and many more in this co-hosted ASUG webcast:

  • Typical Steps that should be carried out during the Year-End Closing process
  • Which of these steps should occur before others
  • Other modules outside FI/CO that are impacted by the Year-End -
  • Closing process
  • Issues that could crop up with the Year End Closing and how to address them
  • Some changes that occur with Year End Closing, when you are on S/4 HANA
  • If you use MR11 transaction will it affect moving average price and will price adjustments need to be done after this is run?
  • Could you please mention the transaction for reconciling inter-company?
  • Where do you set up the GL account that F.19 uses? When I run it in test mode and look at the postings, I don't see any GL Accounts. 
  • Could you give details regarding the GR IR reclass process?
  • Does MR11 when done affect moving average price

Q&A: Why An Optimization Project Should Be In Your 2018 Plans

SAP Help

Get answers to the following questions and many more in this co-hosted ASUG webcast:

  • Why is Optimization needed for SAP customers?
  • Which route should you take in an Optimization Project?
  • Typical Methodology for Optimization.
  • Examples of what could go wrong when Best Practices are not followed.
  • Real life example of Optimizing an SAP system.
  • Do you think the SAP tools SAP VLM/Value Discovery/Celonis can supplement the functional optimization?
  • For companies with heavily customized processes, is it always advisable to run the optimization project before they start the project scoping for HANA S/4? Our current process is customized over 70%.
  • How long was the optimization effort at Woodwards?


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What is the main reason your organization might consider a Functional Optimization Review?

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SAP Net Present Value/Mark-to-Market

SAP Consulting

Many users wonder how SAP calculates the Net Present Value or Mark-to-market figures in transaction JBRX. This post seeks to help users gain an understanding and interpret the results that are generated when one executes the transaction.


An investment transaction generates a series of future cash-flows and the Net Present Value (NPV) is the present value of future cash-flows.


Invest in a €500000 Fixed Term Deposit for one year at a monthly interest rate of 12%.

SAP Help

Cash-flows are calculated as below:

SAP Consulting

To calculate the NPV use transaction code JBRX.

SAP Help

On the selection screen, enter the following information:

  1. Evaluation Currency
  2. Evaluation Type- This carries the relevant evaluation parameters that will be used in the calculation of the NPV.
  3. Evaluation Date- This is the date that determines the market data that will be used in the NPV calculation.
  4. Horizon- This is a future date on which future cash-flows are discounted. The horizon date must be greater than the evaluation date.

You can also select to run the NPV analysis using simulated transactions and you can limit the NPV Analysis bases on different characteristics, for example transaction number.

Once you are happy with your selection criteria, you click Execute.

SAP Help

The system now displays the transaction which we entered in the selection characteristics and both the Nominal amount and the NPV amount are displayed as below:

SAP Help

Highlight the transaction and click on Detail log to view the yield curves that have been used in the NPV calculation. The Yield Curve Framework is used to maintain reference interest rates and enter their values. On the basis of the reference interest rates, you can create yield curves to help you determine mark-to-market net present values with the price calculator.

SAP Help

This transaction will be discounted based on the reference interest rates maintained on yield curve 1002.

SAP Help

For detailed calculation parameters, click on the transaction again and select the icon Calculation Bases.

SAP Help

The Calculation Bases screen first shows the fixed cash-flows based on the fixed interest rate of 12% maintained on the transaction. The cash-flows are calculated based on the Interest calculation method specified on the transaction, Act/365 in this case. For the first cash-flow calculation would be: €500,000.00*12 %*( 28/365) =4602.74.

SAP Help

For the NPV Calculation, the system takes the Discounting Factor calculated based on the 1002 yield curve values and applies that to the fixed cash-flow. For the first line, the calculation would be:

€4602.74*0.9999500264= €4600.44

SAP Help

These discounted cash-flows are then added up and the total NPV of the transaction is €549,570.36.

Q&A: FIN REVENUE RECOGNITION - With the Deadline Looming, Are You Ready?

SAP Help

Get answers to the following questions in this co-hosted ASUG webcast:

  • This presentation focused on the use of RAR.  But that has only been generally available since Mar, 2015.  How many customers are actually using RAR?  What about the rest (assumed to be the majority) who are using "old" functionality like basic SD Rev rec?


  • In your opinion, how long should the project be for a fortune 500 company to implement RAR, the right way?


  • What is software requirement to have implemented RAR in SAP ECC6 EHP6?


  • Do companies seem to be also changing all of their internal and management reporting and metrics or do most companies appear to only be changing their external SEC reporting to align with the new standard?


  • How does/can RAR handle revenue recognition based on estimates, when customer actuals are submitted a quarter later?


  • For a mining company with sales restricted to few customers, do you think RAR is a scope?


  • RAR requires a separate license, correct?


  • What all criteria need to be met for the company to be required for this reporting?


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Is your Contract Roll-Forward external disclosure report ready?

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When is your ASC606 US Adoption Rate?

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Introducing New Asset Accounting in S/4 HANA

Get the background on New Asset Accounting and S/4HANA, and run through some of the key changes that were introduced which distinguish it from Classic Asset Accounting. Next, we will go into some more detail on some of the larger areas, for example how the depreciation areas work with the ledgers to record the different accounting principles.  You may already have heard of the Universal Journal, which is one of the biggest innovations in Finance in S/HANA. We will explain what that is and how New Asset Accounting integrates with it and how the new asset transactions work. I will also run through the depreciation and finally I will briefly touch on the migration of assets.

Q&A: What you should know about New Asset Accounting with S/4 HANA

August Post.png

Q: If you do not currently use the Fixed Assets module in SAP, and you are planning on moving to S/4 HANA, is it better to implement Fixed Assets before you move to S/4 or after?

A: Assuming that you are on SAP, it depends whether you have the new GL or not (as New GL is a pre-requisite for New Asset Accounting), whether you plan to have additional accounting principles, and whether you are converting to S/4 HANA on-premise or doing a Greenfield implementation, which version you are planning to move to and when. Uploading an excel file with batch processing via the LSMW is not available at the moment on-premise, but you can use a BAPI.  An asset upload is usually easier at a year end. If you are already on NewGL and planning to convert to S/4HANA at a year end, it may be easier to get the asset upload out of the way before the S/4 HANA migration.  In all cases I would get expert advice to examine all the facts before making a decision.

A: The fiscal year end of asset accounting must agree with the fiscal year end of Finance, (even if the periods differ) but how can you map a depreciation area with one fiscal year end if you have a different fiscal year end for the parallel ledger in finance?

Q: Lets say you have 0L with March year end and 2L with Dec year end. Create a new ledger e.g. NL with March year end and add to a new ledger group so the new ledger group has both 2L and NL in it and mark  NL as the representative ledger and map the depreciation area for the Dec year end to the new ledger group. This should allow you to post from asset accounting to a different year end in finance.

Q: Can you map depreciation areas to appendix or extension ledgers in finance?

A: No this cannot be done at the moment. The extension ledger posts only delta postings in finance.

Q: If you have an asset with different useful lives for example for local GAAP and IFRS, so that the total depreciation calculated to date is different, and you make a sale to a customer, how does the system post the different values to different ledgers, but the same amount to the customer?

A: The system will automatically use the technical clearing account in a similar way to an acquisition to post the different values in different ledgers.

Q: Can you set up asset accounting with Central Finance on S/4HANA?

A: FI documents from Asset Accounting that are sent to Central Finance are only replicated as FI documents and not currently as fixed assets, and some of the fixed asset information may be removed. Therefore, although in the source system, the APC and accumulated depreciation accounts are set up as reconciliation accounts, in the SAP S/4HANA Finance system, they are not and accept only finance postings.

Q: Is it beneficial to implement new asset accounting prior to upgrading to S/4 Hana?

A: Assuming that you are on SAP, it depends whether you have the new GL or not (as New GL is a pre-requisite for New Asset Accounting), whether you plan to have additional accounting principles, and whether you are converting to S/4 HANA on-premise or doing a Greenfield implementation, which version you are planning to move to and when. Uploading an excel file with batch processing via the LSMW is not available at the moment on-premise, but you can use a BAPI.  An asset upload is usually easier at a year end. If you are already on NewGL and planning to convert to S/4HANA at a year end, it may be easier to get the asset upload out of the way before the S/4 HANA migration.  In all cases I would get expert advice to examine all the facts before making a decision.

Q: For parallel ledgers with differing fiscal year variants, is the migration scenario mandatory for new primary ledger with same fiscal year variant as leading ledger?  Or, can new primary ledger be treated as a "technical ledger" only?

A: I think you can use the representative ledger box to get round this. Lets say you have 0L with March year end and 2L with Dec year end. Create a new ledger e.g. NL with March year end and add to a new ledger group so the new ledger group has both 2L and NL in it and mark  NL as the representative ledger and map the depreciation area for the Dec year end to the new ledger group. This should allow you to post from asset accounting to a different year end in finance.

Q: Each currency needs separate Dep. Area.  Can you please elaborate this from with current ECC EHP6 scenario?

A: It is the same principle as in ECC6, if you have two currencies in finance for a ledger you will need two depreciation areas, one for each currency, for that accounting principle. The main difference is that you no longer need any delta depreciation areas.

Q: How is archiving of FI_DOCUMNT impacted?

A: Not sure if this is a question about new asset accounting or asking if an S/4HANA migration affects already archived documents, or how documents are archived on S/4HANA.

Q: Where do you configure technical clearing account? In AO90 - Asset account determination, or somewhere else? Can you please specify.

A: You cannot configure the technical clearing account in AO90. It has its own section in the New Asset Accounting section under Integration with General Ledger Accounting in the IMG.

Q: I heard a new year could not be opened independently in both Finance and Asset Accounting and is done in a single t-code which is balance carry forward. The carry forward transaction to open the new year can’t be processed if the previous year hasn’t been closed. Does this mean that AJAB closing asset has to be performed before we open a new fiscal year?

A: It is correct that transaction FAGLGVTR, which is the general ledger carry forward is now used for asset accounting as well. However it only opens the new year and you can continue to post to the old year. You should not need to close the old year with AJAB before opening the new year. (In ECC6 i have seen the old year closed 10months later in one company).

Q: If LSMW doesn't work, will tools like WinShuttle or SHDB work?

A: It depends on the version of S/4HANA - I believe the Cloud version has its own tools. For on-premise you can use a BAPI, or transaction AS100 if you don't have too many items, or can split the upload into 2 or 3 uploads.I have not used either Winshuttle nor SHDB  to upload to S/4HANA, the Winshuttle website mentions Certified S/4HANA integration including the 1610 version, but I don't know about SHDB.

Q: For Depreciation areas that do not post to FI where is the data kept and what does it look like what tables do reports run against? Is it held in ADOCA and marked as statistical in some way?

A: ACDOCA contains actual data by ledger and therefore if a depreciation area is not mapped to a ledger it can't record data from it. FAAT_DOC_IT will contain statistical data.  Most of the asset reports can be run by depreciation area so you can see data in the asset module for all the depreciation areas in the same way.

Q: Can we change accounting principle on a depreciation area after the initial migration?

A: During the migration you may need to do some changes to the configuration, but if you want to point one depreciation area at a completely different ledger, It would be best to check with SAP as I am not sure of the consequences.

Q: Can we still use calculated depreciation areas in S4 still posting to ledge?

A: Yes, although as with most of my answers, you should carry out extensive testing to make sure that the results are as you expect.

Q: FYI: LSMW is still officially supported for RE and FI-AA legacy conversion. It just requires that you use the BAPI_FIXEDASSET_OVRTAKE_CREATE rather than a screen recording.  Note 2208321 has more information.

A: In the Simplification List issued for the S/4HANA 1610 release, it states: ""The LSMW (Legacy System Migration Workbench) function is still available within SAP S/4HANA, (onpremise edition) but not considered as the migration tool. LSMW might propose incorrect migration interfaces that cannot be used in SAP S/4HANA anymore. The Legacy System Migration Workbench (LSMW) is an SAP NetWeaver tool for data migration that was first introduced with R/2 to R/3 migrations. It uses standard interfaces like BAPIs, IDocs, Direct Input and Batch Input programs and recordings. Due to this nature, the use of LSMW is restricted for migrations to SAP S/4HANA. The Legacy System Migration Workbench (LSMW) can only be considered as a migration tool for SAP S/4HANA using workarounds and careful testing for each and every object. The use of LSMW for data load to SAP S/4HANA is not recommended and at the customer's own risk. However it then goes on to quote the OSS note 2208321 for one of the workarounds - hence the confusion.

Q: Will you still have the tax deprn available for reporting?

A: If I understand the question,  if you have a tax depreciation area set up and you keep that tax depreciation you should be able to continue to report on it after a migration.

Q: Pease could you confirm. I believe you said migration had to occur at fiscal year end and that you could not reopen the prior year once the migration was over. Our tax only books are often re-opened for the prior year.

A: I believe a New GL migration has to occur at a fiscal year end, but an S/4HANA migration,  can occur at any period end. If I mentioned a closed fiscal year could not be re-opened after migration I was referring specifically to a closed fixed asset year end at the time of migration.

Q: Does HANA still support multiple Chart of Accounts? Or are these now unified into a single CoA?

A: If you mean for example an operating chart or accounts, local chart of accounts or group chart of accounts, then they behave the same in S/4HANA. You still have the option to add a local chart of accounts to the company code in global parameters and enter the alternative account number in the GL account master data.

Q: We have to report by tax jurisdiction and have the tax jurisdiction on the asset will that still be there?

A: The tax jurisdiction field is still available in the asset master data.

Q: Is it possible to add parallel ledgers at the same time as S/4HANA migration?

A: You cannot add parallel ledgers during the migration.  I understand that adding parallel ledgers once on S/4HANA is now available since version 1610 on-premise.

Q: Could the AP invoice in the example have been posted w/ different amounts by ledger?

A: The initial AP invoice would have the same amount for each ledger, so for example the whole amount in one ledger could be capitalized and the whole amount in the other ledger could be expensed, but if you wanted to transfer part of the amount to say shipping costs you would need a subsequent journal using FB01L or AB01L posting to just the one ledger.

Q: It seems in 1605 you must add then parallel ledger in separate year.  can you do it in the same year as migration then with 1610?

A: I think it would be safer to check with SAP as I am not 100% sure of when the parallel ledgers can be added.

Q: We calculate tax depreciation each month and report it at the end of the year the the taxing authority we have a special tax depreciation area.

A: I see no reason that this would not work on S/4HANA although would need more detail to be sure what the exact question is.

Q: Can you open the new year with a pending new project adding a parallel ledger?

A: I think it would be safer to check with SAP as I am not 100% sure of when the parallel ledgers can be added.

Q: Heard that carry forward is only needed one time and will update automatically after performed if posting is made to prior year in the ledger. is this correct?

A: This is the carry forward transaction FAGLGVTR - this is how it worked in ECC6 and as far as I am aware should work the same in S/4HANA.


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SAP PS Functionality and Integration

SAP Project Systems

This article covers the basic functionality of Project Systems and how it relates in MRP to PS and other logistic integration.

Project System is a highly integrated module whose purpose is more for consolidation and reports.

As its name suggest, it is project oriented, something that has a timeline and will end that you want to track by breakdown basis. Though there are cases where we can just make the project as a receiver for a departmental cost for example, RnD of 2016.

There are 6 main setups for PS

  1. Costing – Project that exist only for the purpose of planning costs at WBS level.
  2. Assets – Project that receive Capital funds from Investment Programs.
  3. Sales – Project that are customer focused.
  4. Manufacturing – Project that are Material / Logistic focused.
  5. Statistical – Project that do not plan or receive costs.
  6. Maintenance – Project that exist for managing Equipment.

Different setup caters for the different industry and usages of the module. Each will have a different configuration and integration with other module. In terms of functionality, PS is used to:

  1. Receive and consolidate Costs and Revenue in WBS (leveled and labeled) manner. A WBS is a CO Object, thus can be a receiver for settlement.
  2. Act as Planning tool for project schedule
  3. Act as demand management
  4. Act as investment and asset management
  5. For logistic execution in term of procurement and scheduling.

For No 2, companies will normally use MS Project to do the scheduling and interface it with SAP PS. There is also a standard interface available that can easily integrate these two applications (Open PS)    

SAP Help

To illustrate the core functionality of Cost & Revenue allocation, (example above) where you want to categorize the cost of building a car into 3 categories. You can easily separate and are able to see the breakdown of the cost of the car by building this structure.

SAP Consulting

You can then attach a network to the engine WBS. With this network we can create activities which enable the creation of elements, where the logistic activities are maintained, as you can see in the picture above.

  1. Work – Defines the internal work done by your own labor. This will use a Work Center and activity type to determine the cost. The rate can be maintain in KP26 (Activity type/Price Planning).
  2. External – Defines the external work done by contractors, outside the company. This will require Vendor, Outline Agreement(optional) and cost element. Price is maintained manually.
  3. Costs – Defines auxiliary costs. This will use a cost element and cost is entered directly.
  4. Service – Defines work/ services using a service master.
  5. Material Component – Specifies the activity requires a Material, and demand will be entered. Based on the MRP View 2 – Procurement Type, purchase requisition / planned order will be created.
SAP Expert

  By putting the Material component into the network activity, it will act as a demand for the material.

There are 5 default standard options to choose from

  1. PEV will enter the demand as PIR and become stock for the WBS. 

  2. PF will trigger purchase requisition its for non stock. Meaning it will be consumed upon GR.
  3. PFS is the same as PF, except its to be deliver directly to the customer or an address. You can choose to select customer address / vendor address or any location from central address management.
  4. PFV will enter the demand as PIR, but its non-stock.
  5. WE will also enter demand as PIR, stock item, at Plant level.
SAP Help

You can see the config in SPRO-Project System-Material-Procurement-Define Procurement Indicators for Material Components.  

SAP Help

By putting 2 KG Demand with requirement date 10.08.2017, it will transfer as a PIR and we can view in MD04 as below.

SAP Consultant

Run MRP and the system will generate procurement proposals.

For investment and asset management, it is mostly used in Oil and Gas industry where the project is a AuC (Asset under construction) which when completed, will become Fixed Asset and starts depreciation.

In conclusion, Project System core function is for Revenue / Cost reporting, however it also can be integrated with logistic functionalities and from there derives the project in all aspects. It’s a highly useful module for a company that operates on Project Basis. Below is an example of Customer Project Setup (uses Cost, Sales and Manufacturing setup). 

SAP Help

Project created with WBS and network. Cost planning, logistic, revenue are done. Baseline budget is set and project is executed. Project runs and confirmation, Goods Receipts starts. This will be repeated until project ends. From there customer can be billed based on the Sales Order using Milestone/Billing plan. Settlement done at the end for closing. If additional items are requested from customer, the whole process will retrigger with different SO and WBS (can be in the same project). After project delivery, warranty period will starts and any cost incur will be collected under warranty. Warranty ends and settlement is done at the end of the project closing.

To be a Savvy Professional You Need SAP Training

SAP Training Help

By Lori Moriarty at Michael Management Corporation

If you want to stay relevant as a technically savvy professional, you need continuing SAP training.


Because SAP is the 500-pound gorilla of ERP software. According to SAP they have over 350,000 customers in 180 countries and 15,000 partner companies worldwide. 87% of Forbes Global 2000 are SAP customers. There you go. Odds are high that you are going to be working for a company that has SAP.


Are you currently an SAP end user?

Great. Now it is time to be trained. Many companies use peer-to-peer training methods to get the new end users up and running. Though it may be enough to get the job done, there is so much more to learn. Imagine being able to use menu short-cuts that you did not know exist. With proper training, you can become your department’s Super User and position yourself for a promotion or raise based on your new level of proficiency. There may be a better (i.e. faster) way to do your reports and queries. You may never know these processes exist until you take an SAP training course.


Looking for a new position or a new job?

Your supervisors and future hiring managers will look at your SAP qualifications. Yes, of course, it is great to have experience as an SAP end use user. It is even better to show you went above and beyond and got professional skills training. You can take training for your specific career field. If you are in the human resources field, then earn a certificate as an HR AdministratorHR Manager or HR Payroll Manager. This kind of training is what will put your resume above the rest.


Want an impressive resume on LinkedIn?

Then just upload that hard-earned SAP Training certificate and let them know exactly how serious you are about your career. When you become a Certified SAP Professional, your credentials can be verified on-line by a third party. Remember to continuously update your LinkedIn profile as you change positions and take on more job duties. Reach out to others in your field and build your network because you never know who may be hiring. When you add your new SAP Certification be sure that your “share profile changes” button is in the ON position so that everyone can see your updates.


How would you like to make more money?

According to SAP Certified consultants earn more than consultants without certification. 137 consultants with SAP training reported their earnings at $75K to $126K and 122 SAP consultants who did not have SAP training or certification reported $49K to $78K. Does this mean that the consultants without training are bad? Of course not, they may be even better at the job than some of the higher paid consultants. The point here is that perception is key. More training looks better.


What is motivating you to start continue your SAP training?

Units of Measure and Their Behavior Inside Custom ABAP Code


One topic that is important in SD, but is often overlooked is the use of units of measure in custom ABAP programming.  In SAP, units of measure are stored in a series of tables that begin with T006:

SAP Answers

The table which controls various language translations of a unit of measure is table T006A.  I’ll explain more on that shortly.

SAP does a lot of work behind the scenes that most developers rarely ever see.  When calling up any item in SAP, a delivery for example, SAP will perform conversions of their data before displaying it to the user.  This is done for several fields, but one of those fields is the unit of measure of the delivery item.  SAP will convert the unit into what’s known as the external, or commercial unit of measure.   This is the unit of measure that is displayed to the user.  On the flipside, when a user enters a unit of measure into the delivery item and saves that data, SAP assumes that the user is entering the unit as the external or commercial unit of measure and will convert that entry into the internal unit of measure, or the unit of measure that is stored in SAP.

The difference between the internal and external units of measure are sometimes very hard to distinguish as they often look the same in English.  What it boils down to is that the internal unit of measure is language independent, meaning that it is the same in ALL languages. The external or commercial unit of measure varies depending upon the language it is being viewed from.  A developer may never know this when dealing with units such as KG or M2 because these are typically stored the same way in all languages.

SAP Answers

In the example above, the first unit is the internal unit, while the second unit (MSEH3) is the commercial unit.  Both the internal and commercial units are the same in all languages.  The problem begins to occur with units that vary in different languages.

One example is a crate.  In German, a crate is “Kiste”, so the internal unit of measure is “KI”.  Since SAP is a German system, the commercial unit is also “KI”.  However, in English, we would not identify it as a “KI”, but rather something like “CRT”.  We now have a difference.  Also, in this example, the Japanese unit is in kanji:

SAP Answers

One mistake a developer may do is create a custom field using the external, or commercial unit of measure.  Another is to define a unit of measure variable as a CHAR3 with the intent of writing this value to a text file.  This will cause the field to take the form of whatever is found in the table.  If a user has pulled this data straight from a delivery and writes it directly to the CHAR3 variable, SAP hasn’t converted that text yet, and because the data has been assigned a variable without a conversion exit, it never will be converted. 

For illustration purposes, I built a custom program and table.  This program takes an input, and writes the data to the screen.  Here are few examples. 

SAP Answers

Note that I’ve entered the commercial unit of measure here.

SAP Answers

What just happened?  The unit of measure was converted when assigned the field in the table to be added to the database, however, when it was written to a character variable, it was not converted back before output.

SAP Answers

This example writes the unit of measure from the internal unit of measure field

SAP Answers

Again, what happens here is that SAP converts it to the internal unit so that it can store the correct value in the table, however, before it is written to the screen, it is converted to the commercial unit of measure automatically.

SAP Answers
SAP Answers

Simply put, the reason this happened is because the commercial unit of measure (MSEH3) does not contain a user exit.  Therefore, when the converted unit of measure is assigned to this field, it is currently in its internal format, and does not get converted to it external format.  The issue is that SAP will not automatically perform this conversion when assigning values to variables without the proper conversion exit.

Let’s take another issue that can occur with improper conversions.  This can be seen when a developer writes a custom program to mass load data into a table.  As an example, I made modifications to my existing program to also store records.  

As you can see, when you look at the records SE16N, the new record from the above example appears. 

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However, when attempting to find the record:

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This is caused by storing the improper unit of measure here.  The commercial unit was not converted before it was added to the database.  So, when running SE16N, when the user enters the unit of measure in the search criteria, SAP automatically converts that into the internal unit of measure.  Since the commercial unit is the one that got stored, SAP cannot find a match.

When writing custom programs, a developer must take caution when dealing with units of measure.  In many cases, it will be responsibility of the developer to perform the conversion of the units manually, especially when failing to use the correct variable with the conversion exit built in.  Fortunately, SAP is good at providing the needed tools to accomplish this.  From SE11, the data element for the internal unit of measure(MSEHI) has the domain MEINS.

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Double clicking the domain name and clicking on the definition tab will show the conversion routing of the data element.

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In this example, it is “CUNIT”.  Double-clicking the conversion routine name will show the INPUT and OUTPUT conversion routines for this field. 

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The typical naming convention of a conversion routine is “CONVERSION_EXIT_” followed by the conversion exit name, followed by a final piece to explain the purpose of the function.

For example, CONVERSION_EXIT_CUNIT_OUTPUT is the conversion exit used to convert an internal unit of measure to the commercial unit for user display, while CONVERSION_EXIT_CUNIT_INPUT is the conversion exit used to convert a commercial unit entered by the user to the SAP internal unit of measure when used for storage.  As a rule of thumb, OUTPUT is used data is written to a screen, document, etc.  While INPUT is used when using that data as input for interacting with SAP table data.

When using the conversion exit for units of measure, one key piece of information is the language.  When using the conversion exits, it is best to avoid constants for the language and to use the system variable SY-LANGU.  This will always provide the logon language when converting units of measure.

Going back to our example, I’ve added the needed conversion routines to my code.  Now, let’s run the report again:

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As you can see, both the internal and external units of measure show correctly, and SE16 is able to successfully find the record.

It’s a little confusing at first to distinguish between the internal and external units of measure, but after some time, this will become very clear and will allow for any custom development to handle unit of measure information coming and going.

Finance Differences in SAP S/4HANA



This article covers some of the differences between S/4HANA and previous versions of SAP

Simple Finance was the first part of the Business Suite to be rewritten to run on SAP’s new superfast in-memory HANA database. Simple Logistics followed, and the combined new product, with New GL and New Asset Accounting as prerequisite, became known as S/4HANA.

S/4HANA exists as the S/4HANA Cloud which is a standardized Multi-Tenanted Cloud (i.e. all customers share the same software instance although the data is secure and private). This comes with a mandatory Fiori user interface, quarterly releases, and bespoke programming is not possible as you are sharing your system with others. There is also the On-premise S/4HANA with greater flexibility, freedom to customize as before, and optional Fiori and annual releases.

The exact functionality will vary depending on the release, and this article is mostly based on S/4HANA 1610, which is the October 2016 On-premise release, although some of the functionality below may already be available in the later enhancement packs of ECC6. I have used print screens mainly from the GUI to help users to compare the functionality, but mostly the Fiori apps are quite similar.

A lot of the ECC6 functionality is still available in S/4HANA in the SAP GUI; sometimes transactions are enhanced and easily recognized and both the old and new co-exist (e.g. FAGLL03 and FAGLL03H), and sometimes you are redirected to new functionality automatically (e.g. FK01->BP). It seems where the letter H is added at the end of the transaction, it tends to be a new S/4HANA specific transaction, the letter N has often been added to new transactions anyway, including those introduced with the New GL (and some are already available in later versions of ECC). The letter L at the end of some transactions seems to allow posting to different ledgers e.g. FB01 and FB01L as well as a lot of the new asset transactions, but these are just guidelines not strict rules.


Described as the new User-Experience, Fiori replaces most of the SAP GUI transactions, resembling the more user-friendly Smartphone apps instead of the traditional SAP GUI menu structure. Fiori is available on multiple devices i.e. desktops, phones, tablets etc. Informative, interactive apps are available so you can already see the number of outstanding items, or account balances on the face of the Fiori app before you click on it to drilldown further, see Figure 1. Some apps have graphs, calendars (e.g. leave requests), pie charts etc. and the launch pad can contain customized apps and also personas transactions in the same style as the Fiori apps.

  Figure 1 Two Fiori Tiles

Figure 1 Two Fiori Tiles

Ledgers and Currencies

In addition to the normal parallel ledgers which were introduced with the New GL, there are now Extension Ledgers (original called appendix ledgers). The difference is that with an additional parallel ledger, postings are physically made to both the leading ledger and the parallel ledger, with only adjustments made to the parallel ledger, whereas extension ledgers have to be linked to a base ledger and only take delta postings. Therefore, when you run a report for the extension ledger it pulls in both the base ledger and the extension ledger to show you the complete picture. The extension ledgers however cannot be used in asset accounting.

There are now 8 additional freely definable currencies available, although they may not all be available in other modules and a conversion project would be required to ensure historical data is dealt with appropriately.

Data structure

HANA has the power to calculate on the fly, which means that for financial transactions, index tables such as BSIS, BSAS, BSID, BSAD, BSIK, BSAK, BSIM, FAGLBSIS and FAGLBSAS, as well as aggregate tables such as GLT0, GLT3, FAGLFLEXT, KNC1, LFC1, KNC3, LFC3, COSS, COSP are no longer required and have been removed.  FAGLFLEXA and some other New GL tables are now obsolete and there are also new customizing tables.

However, if you have your own ABAP reports using these tables, don’t worry as there are now Compatibility views with the same name, which recalculate the same values as the tables would have had, allowing any bespoke programs reading the information to continue to function. There are new tools which you can run prior to migration, which allow you to check which of your bespoke programs are read only and will continue to function and which need rewriting. In any case you may find that some of your bespoke programs are no longer required because that functionality is now available as standard, or that it will be more efficient to rewrite them using the new tables anyway.

Universal journal

This is the name of the enhanced financial document in S/4HANA. A Universal Journal is created whenever anything is posted to Finance from any module and each journal can be displayed as before using the display document transaction FB03. Many of the journal entry, invoice entry and other posting transactions are still available in the SAP GUI, so you can still for example use FB50 or FB50L (by ledger) to post a journal, although the Fiori equivalents are more user-friendly. The Universal Journal is the Single Source of Truth for finance, Controlling and COPA, and includes all the cost objects traditionally found in Controlling such as cost centers, internal orders and WBS elements as well as columns for the standard CO-PA characteristics and up to fifty additional characteristics. See also the next section on merging Finance and Controlling. New reports are available, mainly in Fiori, but the old Controlling reports continue to work (using compatibility views), including those for planning

ACDOCA is the name of the Finance module’s important new S/4HANA table, which is based on the Universal Journal line items, containing all of the financial fields, as well as a lot of information from other modules. Figure 2 shows an extract of the ACDOCA table showing some of the asset and material ledger fields available. 

  Figure 2 ACDOCA Table Showing Some of the Fields

Figure 2 ACDOCA Table Showing Some of the Fields

Single Source of Truth

Finance and Controlling are now merged, getting rid of data redundancies and the need for reconciliations, and making visible the internal CO actual postings in FI as well. The real-time FI-CO integration is also obsolete and Controlling data is stored in the new finance table ACDOCA. 

To have only one field available in the Universal Journal for both the GL account and cost element numbers, the cost elements are contained inside the GL account master records. To achieve this, there are now four types of GL account, instead of the previous two, i.e. Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss - see Figure 3.

  Figure 3 GL Account Type

Figure 3 GL Account Type

If you select Primary or Secondary Costs as the GL account type, then on the Control Data tab you will see Controlling Area settings such as the cost element category (see Figure 4). The dropdown options in Figure 4 are based on choosing primary costs as the GL account type. Categories relating to secondary costs are available if you choose the secondary costs GL account type. Cost element groups are still available.

  Figure 4 Cost Element Category

Figure 4 Cost Element Category

Default account assignments from the cost elements are automatically migrated to the OKB9 configuration transaction and configuring cost object defaults in OKB9 is the only option going forwards.


An additional column appears in Transaction OB52 (opening and closing periods) for postings from Controlling to Finance, (although you still need OKP1 at Controlling Area level), and you have the option of selecting the posting period variant prior to entering the time interval screen.

Account-based profitability analysis must be activated but you can still use costing-based profitability analysis in parallel.  Initially realignment was not supported but this has been brought in with release 1610.

Enhanced Search

If you click on the colored icon at the far right of the top menu bar in the S/4HANA GUI and choose options (see Figure 5), then go to Interaction Design->Visualization 2 you can choose whether to use the enhanced search or not, or only with a keyboard shortcut (Ctrl + Shift + Q), see Figure 6.

  Figure 5 GUI Options Menu

Figure 5 GUI Options Menu

  Figure 6 Enhanced Search Functionality Settings

Figure 6 Enhanced Search Functionality Settings

The enhanced search functionality can be used in many places, for example in the vendor line item report to find the vendor by name (Figure 7), by vendor number (Figure 8) by postcode, country, search term or anything else available on that specific enhanced search screen. If you search for example for a material (Figure 9) you will see different search options.  


  Figure 7 Enhanced Search Using Name

Figure 7 Enhanced Search Using Name

  Figure 8 Enhanced Search Using Vendor Number

Figure 8 Enhanced Search Using Vendor Number

  Figure 9 Enhanced Search for Material

Figure 9 Enhanced Search for Material

Vendors and Customers

Customers and vendors can only be maintained using the Business Partner functionality (of which there is of course a Fiori equivalent) and if you try to use the old codes e.g. FK01/2/3 or XK01/2/3 to create/amend/display a vendor or FD01/2/3 and XD01/2/3 to create/amend display a customer you will be redirected to transaction BP. 

Many of the screens are fairly similar to the old master data transactions, but a lot more data is available and one Business Partner may have roles in MM, SD, and FI. Employees, banks and other contacts can also be set up as Business Partners. Multiple relationships can be specified and new time dependent data is available for e.g. addresses and bank data. See Figure 10 and Figure 11. You will need to migrate your customers and vendors to Business Partners as part of the migration if you are not already using them.

  Figure 10 Business Partner Payment Tab

Figure 10 Business Partner Payment Tab

  Figure 11 Business Partner Identification Tab

Figure 11 Business Partner Identification Tab

  Figure 12 Business Partner Relationship contact example

Figure 12 Business Partner Relationship contact example

Line Item Reports

The old reports, such as FBL1N, FBL5N and FAGLL03 still exist alongside FBL1H, FBL5H and FAGLL03H which have slightly different screens. The selection screen is quite similar, although note that the additional selections button (the red, green and blue stripy one) now appears halfway down the selection screen instead of at the top and is labelled Restrictions. Once you execute the report however, things look somewhat different and the line items start off summarized by period.

  Figure 13 Transaction FBL1H

Figure 13 Transaction FBL1H

If you want to see the line items you need to select the lines that you want to see and click on the icon on the right call line item report. This will take you to your normal FBL1N screen.  In Figure 14,  I chose only the last period, i.e. period 6 in 2017 containing one row, (the cleared payment for the previous period). In Figure 15, I chose period 12, 2017 to show the other display setting in FBL1N. (to toggle between the two, go to Settings-> Switch List in the top menu in the line item display).

  Figure 14 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

Figure 14 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

  Figure 15 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

Figure 15 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

By clicking on the vendor number in the body of the report, you will be redirected to the vendor master data (held in the Business Partner transaction) 

Credit Management

FSCM replaces the previous Accounts Receivable credit management transactions (e.g. F.28/F.31/F.32/F.33/FD32) and the Sales transactions (VKM3/VKM5). If you are not already familiar with FSCM, this already used the Business Partner functionality prior to S/4HANA and has additional functionality, in areas such as Credit Management, Collections Management (including collection worklists), Dispute Management. It also has additional reporting and allows you to import external credit information. 


The Material Ledger is mandatory (although Actual Costing is still optional) and there are also new tables for material documents (MATDOC), a Cost of Goods Sold variance split and no locking of tables. The material number field is extended from 18 to 40 characters and this information is available in the Universal Journal document, and therefore the ACDOCA table for reporting in finance. Note that the extended material functionality can be switched off if for example you have a multi-system landscape.

Global trade Services (GTS)

GTS replaces the foreign trade functionality in Sales and Procurement. This allows the pulling in of data from different systems, and is extensively integrated with SD and MM. 

Revenue Recognition

Only the new Revenue Accounting and Reporting, which supports IFRS15, is available in S/4HANA, i.e. the SD Revenue and Recognition is no longer available.


The Legacy System Migration Workbench is still available in S/4HANA, but it is not recommended for migrations as it has not been amended for the new data structures, and some functionality is not available e.g. transaction recordings cannot be made with the Fiori transactions. 

The Maintenance Planner tool has to be used for a system conversion, which among other things, checks add-ons, active business functions and industry solutions to ensure that they can be converted.

Central Finance

Central Finance is a new concept introduced with S/4HANA. It allows users with a large and distributed landscape to replicate both SAP and non-SAP finance data real-time to a central S/4HANA system, but still allowing drilldown to the original document in the SAP systems.

Cash Management

There is a suite of programs, Cash Operations, Bank Account Management (BAM) and Liquidity Management that replace the classic cash and liquidity management, and you can centrally manage the actual and forecast cash positions from SAP and non-SAP systems by using the One Exposure operations Hub. Transactions such as FF7A and FF7B (cash management and liquidity forecast) are now Fiori apps.

House banks and house bank accounts, which are now master data, can be managed by users in Fiori, along with banks hierarchies or groupings, overdraft limits, signatories and approvals flows and additional reporting such as the foreign bank account report, helps compliancy. The hierarchy uses the bank business partner role

Bank accounts can also be downloaded and uploaded to and from Excel, for reporting, migrations and mass changes. They are created in the productive system, but still need to be replicated to the development and quality assurance systems etc. as configuration for payments and bank statements still needs to be made in the development system and moved through quality to production as usual.

If you don’t want to implement the full Bank Account Management (BAM), then Basic Cash management is also available, previously known as BAM Lite. 

Other Fiori apps available include for cash operations include the Incoming bank statements monitor, cash payments and approvals, cash position reports, transfers, cash pooling. 

  Figure 22 Examples of a Few Bank Management Apps in Fiori

Figure 22 Examples of a Few Bank Management Apps in Fiori

FI12_HBANK is the SAP GUI transaction for the user that replaces the House Bank icon in the customizing transaction FBZP, (see Figure 23), although you will find more functionality in the Fiori App such as the hierarchies and groupings. After entering the company code on the first screen you can display, amend or create new house banks.

  Figure 23FI12_HBANK - House Bank Transaction in SAP GUI

Figure 23FI12_HBANK - House Bank Transaction in SAP GUI

New Asset Accounting

Depreciation Areas - You still have the choice of using the parallel ledgers brought in by the New GL or accounting for different accounting principles using a different range of GL accounts. However, even if you use different accounts for the different accounting principles, you still need to set them up in asset accounting as dummy ledgers.   You no longer need to set up delta depreciation areas where you have additional accounting principles, but you do need to have a one to one match for each currency and ledger in Finance with a depreciation area in Asset Accounting.

The depreciation areas are now equal (i.e. depreciation area 1 does not have to be the leading ledger) and transaction ASKB, (post additional depreciation areas periodically to finance), has been removed because you can post all depreciation areas to Finance in real-time if required.  Because all the postings are real-time, you can navigate and drill down to most of the financial documents not just those in depreciation area 1. 

Postings – As with finance, a lot of the tables are now redundant and a lot of the asset information comes across via the Universal Journal in table ACDOCA. The asset balance sheet accounts are now all reconciliation accounts – even those in the additional depreciation areas, which prevents manual postings that are not updating the assets. The depreciation run posting has been improved and the depreciation journal contains asset information at line item detail so in the GL line item report you can see the amounts by asset, see Figure 16

  Figure 16 Depreciation Account in GL Account Line Item Display

Figure 16 Depreciation Account in GL Account Line Item Display

You can also drilldown to the asset accounting from the finance document (click on asset accounting icon in Figure 17) to see the postings by ledger group. 

  Figure 17 Finance Document for Asset Acquisition

Figure 17 Finance Document for Asset Acquisition

In Figure 18, you can see the Technical Clearing account functionality. This is required to post the other depreciation areas in real-time, whilst allowing the flexibility to post each asset differently in each ledger. Some accounts, for example vendors, customers, GRIR account and tax accounts cannot be posted to unilaterally i.e. in one ledger and not others. Therefore, the acquisition or retirement posting is split into at least two documents. The first is called the operational posting and has a blank ledger group i.e. it posts equally to all ledgers. 

The posting for an acquisition is credit vendor and debit technical clearing account. The second, valuating posting, then posts between the technical clearing account and the asset with a separate document for each ledger.  To get to the posting for the additional ledgers and currencies, you have to click on the A/P Currency icon (which stands for Accounting Principle/Currency) and you can see the document in Figure 22 shares the same operational posting with document 1900000019 but has a different valuating posting with document 7000000073 instead of 100000048 which was the document number for the leading ledger.

  Figure 18 Figure 14 Drilldown to Ledger Postings by Asset

Figure 18 Figure 14 Drilldown to Ledger Postings by Asset

  Figure 19 Asset Acquisition, Parallel Ledger Posting

Figure 19 Asset Acquisition, Parallel Ledger Posting

Accounting Principle and Depreciation Area are new fields now available in many new transactions (e.g. ABZOL instead of ABZO, or ABUML instead of ABUM and so on), so there is no longer a need for depreciation area specific transaction types.

Settlement rules can also be ledger specific if required, see example in Figure 20

  Figure 20 Ledger Specific Settlement Rules

Figure 20 Ledger Specific Settlement Rules

Year-End – this is now carried forward as part of the finance transaction FAGLGVTR, in other words both the general ledger and assets are carried forward together 

Statistical postings – instead of statistical cost elements with cost category 90 there is now a special field in the GL account master record only in fixed asset and material reconciliation accounts called Apply Acct Assignments Statistically in Fixed Asset Acct/Material Acct.

  Figure 21 Asset Statistical Account Assignment

Figure 21 Asset Statistical Account Assignment

I have written more about New Asset Accounting in my latest E-Bite Introducing New Asset Accounting in SAP S/4HANA – you can find out more at which is a short cut to the SAP Press site. This book covers how new asset accounting works in S/4HANA and is aimed at users who are new to SAP as well as those migrating from earlier versions of SAP.