ERPfixers Blog Series

Fiori Advancements in Financial Closing Cockpit in S/4HANA 

Period end closing is always a critical and high visibility item in any ERP. The timely and effective monitoring and control of period end closing is top most need for the finance department. For this purpose, you must process a sequence of interdependent steps diligently in a specific and well-defined order. Entities use various tools for this, ranging from excel to more sophisticated tools like SAP Financial Closing Cockpit, Blackline’s Runbook etc.

Material Ledger in SAP S/4HANA: Functionality and Configuration

Unlock the potential of the Material Ledger in SAP S/4HANA with this comprehensive guide. Move beyond the basics and get the step-by-step instructions you need to configure and run actual costing, group valuation, profit center valuation, and more. Consult detailed screenshots and expert guidance as you dive deep into the major processes, specialized scenarios, and reporting and analytics. Master the Material Ledger from end to end!

BPC Standard to BPS Optimized for S/4 HANA

Design Summary and Guiding Principles

Overall Objectives

  • Develop a solution to improve the budgeting and consolidation business processes of the Company.

  • Integrate data in a centrally accessible repository storing one version of the truth.

  • Make the monthly reporting preparation more transparent and efficient by aligning process owners. Enhance collaboration between contributors.

  • Improve business information, enable business visibility and analysis of the cost base and standardize the management reporting outputs.

S/4HANA Cloud (S4HC) Implementation: Key Watch-Outs For a Seasoned On-Premise Consultant

SAP Consultant

With SAP being a 46+ year old company, most of the SAP consultants are seasoned in on-premise world having deep knowledge and expertise in configuring systems, designing SAP according to business needs and following various implementation approaches. Now S/4HANA cloud version is gaining popularity and very useful in various scenarios, like professional services, affiliates of larger enterprises as two-tier implementation etc., so learning how it is different from on-premise world is useful. (Also refer blog “Critical insight into S/4HANA Cloud compared to S/4HANA On Premise” showing some differences in S/4HANA cloud vs S/4HANA on-premise.)

Let’s observe some key watch-outs in a S4HC implementation:

1. Acquire S4HC knowledge (via learning and certification)

As S/4HANA cloud implementation process has unique features compared to S/4HANA on-premise, the consultant should acquire relevant Line of Business (LoB) information and SAP Activate information in detail, e.g.:

This will enable you on how the SAP Activate Methodology works for S4HC, what are the key activities in implementation, what standard SAP accelerators available for project management/ functional configuration/ business workshops/ deliverables/ testing etc. and guidelines to follow, as if you are implementing public cloud version, there are limited options available for changes compared to standard process. 

2. System Landscape

The various systems get provisioned as below in S4HC environment:

Starter System

This system is pre-configured with initially identified scope items and pre-delivered with master data and standard organizational structure. This is made available to client during prepare phase. Also, this system will not have some features, like “Test Automation Tool”, ability to define custom fields etc. not available in starter system.

Quality System

This is requested at the end of explore phase and provisioned as realize phase starts.

Production System

Production system is also requested immediately after quality system provisioning. 

Starter system will be decommissioned 30 days after the production system provisioning communication is sent by SAP to client’s IT user. So only for such 30 days, client will have three systems in S4HC landscape. Otherwise it will always have dual system landscape.

3. Scope Items Applicability

All the business processes in cloud environment are governed by scope items, where each scope item address a business process. You can find the list of scope items in below accelerator: “Availability and Dependencies of Scope Items” available in SAP Activate Roadmap in Explore phase. 

Now if you see this excel, in the “Available in Scope Bundle” (Column – H for Enterprise Management version as example), there is mention of applicability for S4HC implementation. Wherever you see the “Default Provisioning” it implies that such scope items will be activated when a system is provisioned irrespective of whether customer want to use that or not. E.g. Scope item 1K2 (Event-Based Revenue Recognition - Sell from Stock) will be provisioned as default in S4HC, even if client does not want deferred/accrued revenue postings during PGI/billing. Hence consultant must consider the impact of all such mandatory scope items also during discussion and solution finding with business. There is no option “not to active” or “to deactivate” such mandatory scope items.

4. Organizational Structure

SAP provides a default organization structure in S4HC for various countries and business should decide on what to use from standard and what to define as own. Refer accelerator “Organizational Structure Overview” and “Organizational Data Overview” 

However, note that organization element Operating Concern, controlling area and credit control area can’t be configured or even displayed by customer. SAP has defined A000 as single operating concern, single controlling area and single credit control area as default. Customer can’t use multi-controlling area setup in S4HC environment as of now. Even customer can’t modify the default ID A000.

5. Currency and Ledger Setup

Unlike S/4HANA on-premise where there is possibility to define multiple parallel ledgers and extension ledgers, S4HC can have only two ledgers (one leading and one parallel) as of now. The setup of ledger and currency is defined at the pre-set phase of quality system.

If you want to use Group Currency, then it can be specified as client currency at the time of quality system provisioning request.

Here it is also decided to what will be configured as scope bundle (i) Local GAAP, (ii) Local GAAP and IFRS or (iii) Local GAAP and USGAAP and in Ledger Setup you can decide which will be considered as leading and which will be considered as parallel ledger:


6. Fiscal Year Variant

SAP by default provide the fiscal year variant as K4 in the starter system setup and there is option to change it to pre-delivered Fiscal Year Variants while requesting for quality system provisioning. It you want to use other fiscal year variant like (4-5-4 FYV as needed in US), it can be done during leveraging phase using a pre-delivered FYV “SZ”. Apart from this from version 1902, SAP also providing option to maintain additional alternative FYV with some restrictions. Please refer accelerator “Fiscal Year Variant Implementation Guide” applicable from S4HC 1902 version. 

7. Transaction Data

Even if starter system is provisioned with master data and standard organizational structure, it does not contain any transaction data. So, while preparing for Fit-to-standard workshop, if you are looking for to display various analytical apps, then suitable transaction data needed to be created in starter system to show values in such analytical apps.

8. Configurations Changes

Currently if you are making changes in configurations by adding new entries, S4HC does not allow you to delete the entry, and thus that unwanted/junk configuration may remain there in system not being idle scenario. In S4HC 1902 version, SAP seems to be providing option to delete also in many web SSCUIs (Self Service Configuration User Interface) and such objects will be identifiable in a separate column in accelerator “Expert Configuration and SSCUI Reference”. This will help consultants to keep system clean of unwanted settings created. The deletion feature is planned to be expended in more and more SSCUIs in every release.'


In a nutshell, S4HC implementation will become a successful implementation for you if you “Embrace the Standard” and follow SAP delivered activate methodology, accelerators and processes. A simple on-premise consultant will not be able to complete S4HC project properly, unless he gains the cloud way-of-working and take care of the peculiar features of S4HC.

Securing SAP Fiori

SAP Fiori Help

This article is an excerpt from Securing SAP S/4HANA, courtesy of Espresso Tutorials.

Securing Fiori

SAP Fiori is a new user experience (UX) for SAP software and applications. It provides a set of applications that are used in regular business functions such as work approvals, financial apps, calculation apps, and various self-service apps. The SAP user interface, or SAP GUI as we know it today, was first introduced in 1992 together with the official release of SAP R/3. SAP R/3, the client server edition, was the successor to the SAP R/2 release, the mainframe edition. Although SAP has made several attempts to modernize SAP GUI, an end user from the time it was introduced would still find their way around today. Many transactions and screens have remained the same or changed very little. Since the initial release of SAP GUI, SAP has released several alternative user interfaces such as the SAP Workplace (which was part of the offering), the SAP Enterprise Portal, and the NetWeaver Business Client or NWBC. None were as successful as SAP GUI except, perhaps, for the NetWeaver Business Client. The NetWeaver Business Client is, however, an extension to the SAP GUI. The conclusion of all this is that although many people complained about the old-fashioned look of SAP GUI, they kept using it and will probably continue to do so in the future. But there is no denying the fact that the user community is changing fast. The SAP users of tomorrow are the youngsters of today, who are used to accessing data from their mobile devices. To them, SAP GUI is a relic from the dark ages. This shift is not limited to youngsters—many end users want data access from any device, from any place, at any time. SAP released SAP Fiori to respond to this demand. SAP Fiori is built using modern design principles you might expect from applications designed for smartphones and tablets. There are already more than 500 role-based Fiori applications such as for HR, Finance, and Business Intelligence. An SAP Fiori application is always limited to a specific task or activity. The design is responsive and deployable on multiple platforms. There are three types of SAP Fiori applications: transactional apps, fact sheets, and analytical apps. SECURING FIORI 46

Transactional or task-based applications

The transactional SAP Fiori applications are limited to specific tasks such as entering a holiday request or expense note. They give end users fast access to data and represent a simplified view of an existing business process or workflow.

Fact sheets

Fact sheets have far more capabilities than transactional applications. From a fact sheet, you can drill down into the details. You can even navigate from one fact sheet to another or jump to the related transactional applications. For fact sheets, the underlying database must be SAP HANA. An example of a fact sheet is an application that shows the overview and details of a piece of equipment and its maintenance schedule.

Analytical applications

Analytical applications build on business intelligence using the capabilities of SAP HANA. They allow you to monitor key performance indicators (KPIs) of your business operations and to react immediately as changes occur. An example is the sales orders application, which immediately shows your sales representative the sales history from his customer, allowing him to take discount decisions immediately.

Deployment options

SAP Fiori apps consist of front-end components, which provide the user interface and the connection to the back end, and back-end components, which provide the data. The front-end components and the back-end components are delivered in separate products and must be installed in a system landscape that is enabled for SAP Fiori. There are multiple deployment options for the SAP Fiori components, each with their respective advantages and disadvantages. SAP Fiori applications are accessed through the SAP NetWeaver Gateway. The gateway consists of two components: SAP Gateway Foundation (SAP_GWFND) and User Interface Technology (SAP_UI). Both components are add-ons, which from NetWeaver version 7.4, are part of the SAP NetWeaver ABAP Stack. With NetWeaver 7.31, the components had to be deployed separately. This means that any system built on SAP NetWeaver, such as SAP ERP or SAP CRM, can be used to deploy SAP Fiori applications. SECURING FIORI 47 The following deployment options exist: central hub deployment, the embedded scenario and the cloud edition (see Figure 2.1). Figure 2.1: SAP Fiori deployment options

Figure 2.1: SAP Fiori deployment options

Figure 2.1: SAP Fiori deployment options

Central hub deployment

The central hub deployment is the preferred option. Here, SAP NetWeaver Gateway is installed as a separate system. The Fiori applications are deployed here and access the data on the back-end business systems, such as SAP ERP or SAP CRM. Although this option implies an extra system, thus a higher total cost of ownership (TCO), it enables a multi-back-end system scenario while ensuring a consistent look and feel for the different applications. The central hub can be considered a single point of access for all mobile applications. In addition, installing SAP NetWeaver Gateway on a separate system allows you to move the system behind or in front of the firewall depending on your current network topology and security requirements. SECURING FIORI 48

Embedded scenario

SAP NetWeaver is the basis of all ABAP-based SAP applications, regardless of whether you are talking about SAP ERP, SAP BW, or any of the others. As the gateway is an add-on for SAP NetWeaver, it is available on every ABAP-based business application. This means that it can be activated and that Fiori applications can be deployed on any system. This makes an extra system unnecessary. However, we do not recommend the embedded scenario as, in contrast to the central hub deployment, it results in Fiori applications being installed all over the place— negating the advantage of the single point of access for all mobile applications. The embedded scenario should only be considered during a proof of concept or when the deployment of mobile applications is going to be limited to a single SAP application such as SAP ERP. 2.1.3

Cloud edition

The SAP Fiori cloud edition is a ready-to-use infrastructure which can serve as a front end while leaving the back-end systems on premise. The connection to the SAP Fiori Cloud is realized via SAP Cloud Connector, which must be installed on premise. The back-end components still have to be installed on the back-end systems.

Comparison of the deployment options

Table 2.1 compares the different deployment options. Every deployment option has its respective advantages and disadvantages. The importance of the pros and cons differ in every customer situation. We strongly recommend the central hub deployment option as it enables a single point of access to your mobile applications for SAP ERP, SAP BW, and many others, while at the same time ensuring the same look and feel. Due to its limitations and dependencies, the embedded scenario should only be considered in a proof-of-concept scenario.

Table 2.1: Comparison of the deployment options

Table 2.1: Comparison of the deployment options

What's Changing in FSCM - Dispute Management in S/4HANA Compared to ECC

SAP Help

I wish for a world without any dispute, but the reality is that in every sphere of business there are chances of dispute. While running a business, customer disputes can impact organization’s financial stability and creditability.

SAP FSCM - Dispute Management helps in identifying and documenting disputes earlier in the payment cycle, track and monitor reasons that drive DSO (Days Sales Outstanding) and streamline process of dispute resolution while fully integrated with FI. Key process steps in FSCM - Dispute Management are as below:

Screen Shot 2018-10-03 at 10.29.01 AM.png

FSCM - Dispute Management is not a new functionality and was existing in ECC environment also, so what’s really changing in FSCM is of great interest for organizations converting/adopting S/4HANA. Let’s see key changes in detail:

Transactional Simplifications

  • The core attributes of dispute case are the same in S/4HANA as in ECC, but the transaction processing has been simplified a lot in S/4HANA. See below highlights of such transactional changes:

    Process Receivables (Fiori ID F0106)

Process receivables Fiori application is under FSCM - Collection Management, but fully integrated to FSCM - Dispute Management. E.g. in below Figure 1 for Process Receivables app, you have the option to see the dispute cases for the customer and can also create new dispute cases for outstanding items. 

Figure 1:  Dispute Management integrated to Collection Management

Figure 1: Dispute Management integrated to Collection Management

When creating the dispute case, the screen as showing in Figure 2 below is also having very specific relevant fields for user to create the dispute case: 

Figure 2:  Simplified entry screen for dispute case creation

Figure 2: Simplified entry screen for dispute case creation

Various disputes for the custom will appear at the same place as shown in Figure 3 below:

Figure 3:  Displaying dispute cases for the customer in Process Receivables app

Figure 3: Displaying dispute cases for the customer in Process Receivables app

  • Manage Dispute Cases (Fiori ID F0702)

This fiori application helps in managing the dispute cases as shown in Figure 4 below. Here you can change the processor for multiple dispute cases in single go. Or can go inside the particular dispute case to change its’ attributes:

Figure 4:  Unified dashboard to show various dispute cases to process

Figure 4: Unified dashboard to show various dispute cases to process

On opening a dispute case, you can change the other attributes like root cause code, person responsible, reason etc. as shown in Figure 5 below (The attributes are same as in ECC environment.)

Figure 5:  Changing the attributes of a dispute case

Figure 5: Changing the attributes of a dispute case

  • Other Fiori Applications of GUI type:

There are various other fiori applications available, like Write off dispute cases (Fiori ID UDM_AUTOWRITEOFF) which are of GUI type, i.e. the look and feel is similar to SAP GUI transaction codes so the processing will not be impacted in S/4HANA environment for such transactions. For example, Figure 6 show the screen like GUI transaction UDM_AUTOWRITEOFF

Figure 6:  Fiori application of GUI type

Figure 6: Fiori application of GUI type

Analytical Innovations

Analytical power is core capability in S/4HANA and it provides a lot of out-of-the-box analytical applications, which shows the key KPIs on the tiles page as shown in Figure 7 below: 

Figure 7:  Analytical apps showing KPI information for dispute management

Figure 7: Analytical apps showing KPI information for dispute management

Let’s see some more drilldown into these analytical apps on what kind on information these are showing:

  • Overdue Receivables in Dispute (Fiori ID F2540

Figure 8 show the overdue receivables in dispute cases and thus represent directly the working capital having less probability of realization. The analysis can be done from various angles, like by company code, by customer, by processor etc.:

Figure 8:  Fiori application - Overdue Receivables in Dispute

Figure 8: Fiori application - Overdue Receivables in Dispute

  • Open Disputes (Fiori ID F1752)

Figure 9 show the open dispute cases and analysis can be done from various angles, like by customer, by processor etc.:

Figure 9:  Fiori application - Open Disputes

Figure 9: Fiori application - Open Disputes

  • Solved Disputes (Fiori ID F2521)

Figure 10 show the closed dispute cases and analysis can be done from various angles, like by processor, by dispute case, by processor etc.: 

Figure 10:  Fiori application - Solved Disputes

Figure 10: Fiori application - Solved Disputes

  • Processing Days of Open Disputes (Fiori ID F2522

Figure 11 show the processing days of open disputes and thus helps in prioritization of the cases for follow-up. The analysis can be done from various angles, like by coordinator, by dispute case, by customer etc.:

Figure 11:  Fiori application - Processing Days of Open Disputes

Figure 11: Fiori application - Processing Days of Open Disputes

Role based menu in Fiori Launchpad

SAP S/4HANA provides Fiori Launchpad and thus all the related fiori applications for the user to manage dispute cases can be placed in single catalogue for ease of processing as illustrated in below Figure 12:

Figure 12:  Fiori application - Processing Days of Open Disputes

Figure 12: Fiori application - Processing Days of Open Disputes

Integration with external application(s)

You can define external applications that allow you to process dispute cases outside of SAP Dispute Management. In the out-of-the-box settings, the SAP application “CRM Claims Management” is defined as an external application.

Lighting fast processing powered by HANA platform

FSCM – Dispute Management is also not secluded from proven processing speed benefit of HANA. 

The processing in new transactional apps is faster because of simplified accounting data structure in backend, fewer data fields to fill and fewer steps to perform the dispute transactions.

In a nutshell, S/4HANA increases the utility for dispute management function and intensify the business case compared to using any third-party tool for this function.

SAP S/4HANA Finance – Hierarchies

With their latest product, SAP S/4HANA, SAP is revolutionizing how we approach finance by re-architecting data persistency and merging accounts and cost elements. This book offers a fundamental introduction to SAP S/4HANA Finance. Dive into the three pillars of innovation including SAP Accounting powered by SAP HANA, SAP Cash Management, and SAP BI Integrated Planning. Find out about the new configuration options, updated data model, and what this means for reporting in the future. Get a first-hand look at the new user interfaces in SAP Fiori. Review new universal journal, asset accounting, material ledger, and account-based profitability analysis functionality. Examine the steps required to migrate to SAP S/4HANA Finance and walk through the deployment options. By using practical examples, tips, and screenshots, this book helps readers to:

- Understand the basics of SAP S/4HANA Finance
- Explore the new architecture, configuration options, and SAP Fiori
- Examine SAP S/4HANA Finance migration steps
- Assess the impact on business processes

SAP HANA Implementation Guide: Disaster Recover Concepts

Backup Using Storage Snapshots

Storage snapshots are taken at storage level and are a backup or copy of all disks in a storage group at the same point in time.

Storage snapshots have the following benefits:

  • They can be created with minimal impact on the system. This is because storage snapshots are created in the storage system and do not consume database services.

  • Recovery from a storage snapshot is faster than recovery from a data backup.

  • An SAP HANA database can be recovered to a specified point in time using a storage snapshot only or using storage snapshot in combination with log backups. This enables you to recover to a specified point in time.

ERPfixers Help

Storage snapshots and SAP HANA MDC

Backup and recovery using snapshots is not yet available for Multi Database Containers (MDC). There are two types of snapshots: database aware and database unaware snapshots.

Database Unaware Snapshots

A database unaware snapshot is a storage snapshot taken without notifying the database. When a recovery to the snapshot is done and the database restarted, the database assumes that a power-failure occurred and performs an online recovery. Database unaware snapshots are, by definition, inconsistent because the snapshot was taken while the database was running.

Database Aware Snapshots

A database aware snapshot is a storage snapshot which, when taken, notifies the database. As the database is warned, it can save a consistent state to disk. Database aware snapshots are, therefore, preferred over database unaware snapshots.

From an SAP HANA perspective, the storage snapshot captures the content of the SAP HANA data area at a particular point in time. Only use database aware snapshots. A snapshot is created by first creating an internal database snapshot. The database snapshot provides a view of the database with a consistent state at the point in time when it was created. The database snapshot is used to ensure the consistent state of the storage snapshot, regardless of the physical layout of the data area with respect to the number of disks, controllers, etc.

The following steps are needed to create a Storage Snapshot (see Figure 4.3):

  1. Use the SAP HANA Studio or the Command Line Tool to initiate the database snapshot. DISASTER RECOVERY

  2. Use storage tools to create a storage snapshot.

  3. Use the SAP HANA Studio or the Command Line Tool to confirm that the storage snapshot was created successfully. An ID is written to the backup catalog and the snapshot is released.

Figure 4.3: Steps for database aware snapshots

Figure 4.3: Steps for database aware snapshots

SAP Help

Integration between SAP HANA and Storage

Database snapshots can be created via the SAP HANA Studio or the SQL command line. Both options are easy to use. For daily backups, the creation of the database snapshot will have to be automated by developing two scripts; one script to initiate the database snapshot and another to release the same snapshot. Both scripts will then have to be called from within the storage solution. Fortunately, most storage vendors provide such scripts by default. 


This excerpt is from the SAP HANA – Implementation Guide complements of Espresso Tutorials!

All New SAP S/4 HANA Transaction Codes

This excerpt is from our friends at Michael Management Corp.

This excerpt is from our friends at Michael Management Corp.

A few months ago, we received a live chat on our website asking if we had a list of all SAP transaction codes – we didn’t and so I wrote a blog where you can download all SAP tcodes. This blog turned out to be the most visited article of the year – who would have known?

Then recently someone asked me about this list on our Twitter feed, specifically, if our list also included the transaction codes for SAP’s newest release, S/4 HANA (it didn’t). So I went into our S/4 system and downloaded all transaction codes to an Excel spreadsheet and compared the 2 lists.

As a reminder, a transaction code in SAP is a shortcut to an activity. For example, AS01 is the code to create a new fixed asset master record, FB01 lets you post a financial document or use ME21 to create a purchase order, etc. pp.

You can see a complete list of all transaction codes by displaying the contents of table TSTCT – this is where SAP stores all tcodes and their description in all installed languages.

It turns out that there are about 7600 new transactions in S/4 (and that’s on top of the roughly 100,000 tcodes that exist in SAP’s ECC 6 release) …that’s somewhat surprising to me – I would have guessed a lot higher.

Anyway, download all new SAP S/4 transaction codes and take a look for yourself.

Once downloaded, play around with it – for example, you can search for the string /ui2/ (=user interface 2) to find all new Fiori-related transaction codes quickly.

I hope you’ll find the list useful and, as always, please comment below and share this post.


Thomas Michael

SCM Refresh


This document is designed specifically during System Refresh for SCM system. This document will be helpful for SAP BASIS consultant to give all basic knowledge of SCM System Refresh. If we want to refresh our system legacy data with production data in quality or pre-production, we perform the system refresh. Example copying production data to quality or pre-production environment. Here production will be online during this activity.


SCM System Refresh: 

In this process we copy the system from the production to lower environment like Pre-production or sandbox for below purposes. 

  1. Before any cutover/go live for testing.

  2. Before Any upgrade of Enhancement package or support pack stack upgrade or version upgrade.

  3. Companies want their SAP test system to look like their production system for better testing.


Step 1 Screen shot of some transaction to compare after refresh 

  1. STMS: Transport Domain, System Overview, Transport Configuration, Transport Parameter

  2. SCC4: Client status open / close.

  3. AL11: Transport directory location.

  4. RZ03: Operation Mode, Current work process status, instance and startup profile location rom instance status

  5. RZ12:

  6. SMLG:

  7. WE20: Partner profile.

  8. SM59:

  9. SS02:

  10. SLICENSE for later use of Hardware Key

  11. DB13

  12. FILE

  13. SLDAPICUST note which system

  14. STRUSTSSO2 see which tickets are active


Step 2 Screen shot of some table using SE16 

  1. EDPP1


  3. USR02 Number of entries (to compare after import)

  4. V_TBDLS





Step 3 SM37: download all BTC info into .XLS 

Step 4 SPAD: Printer Export as .txt format 

Step 5 Export Background Jobs: 

Export tables: exp: then put in a dump file 
















Step 6 RFC export: 






Step 7 Export AL11 table USER_DIR 

Step 8 SCC8 User Master Data Export 

Users master data of that client exported so the user of production not reflect to the target system.

Up to 3 requests are created, depending on the data selected and available: 

1. "XXXKO00012" for transporting cross-client data, if you have selected this 

2. "XXXKT00012" for transporting client-specific data 

3. "XXXKX00012" for transporting client-specific texts, provided texts are available in this client 

SAP Help


1. SCC8 

2. Choose profile SAP_USER and Target system as same client. 

3. Schedule job immediately with no printer Dialog 

4. Continue 

5. SCC3 go to Export 

6. Wait till finished. 

Refresh Activity: 

Removing data files of XXX & coping PRD data (user orasid)

cd /oracle/XXX/ 

rm -r sapdata1 

rm -r sapdata2 

rm -r sapdata3 

rm -r sapdata4 

rm -r origlogA 

rm -r origlogB 

rm -r mirrlogA 

rm -r mirrlogB 

cd /oracle/XXX/ (we are here only so no need to do it (user orasid)) 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata1 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata2 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata3 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/sapdata4 . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/origlogA . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/origlogB . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/mirrlogA . & 

scp -pr /tmpmount/mirrlogB . & 

Post Step 

STEP 1 Create Control File on Source System 

  • su – ora<Target SID>

  • sqlplus / nolog

  • connect / as sysdba

  • alter database backup controlfile to trace;

  • cd /oracle/SID/saptrace/usertrace

  • cp <latest-file>.trc SIDcontrol.sql

  • scp SIDcontrol.sql to Source system

STep 2 Edit Control File on Target System 

  • Chown orasid:dba SIDcontrol.sql 

Step 3 Login to database & recover the database from controlfile.


  1. oraxxx>Sqlplus / as sysdba; 

  2. startup nomount

  3. @/xxx/xxx.sql

  4. Recover database using backup controlfile until cancel;

  5. alter database open resetlogs;

  6. alter tablespace PSAPTEMP add tempfile '/oracle/XXX/sapdata1/temp_1/temp.data1' size 540M reuse autoextend on next 20000000 maxsize 10000M;

  7. Shutdown Immediate;

  8. startup mount;

  9. alter database noarchivelog;

  10. alter database open;

  11. alter database rename global_name to XXX

  12. @/oracle/post_copy.sql

Step 4 We need to drop the “OPS$” users of PRD system & need to create the users with current SID.


1. Select username from dba_users; (it will show list of all OPS$ user and create this user again with XXX sid and provide the role related to it) 


  • SYS





  • SAPSR3



  • DIP



2. Drop user OPS$ORAXXP cascade; 

3. Drop user OPS$XXPADM cascade; 

4. Drop user OPS$SAPSERVICEXXP cascade; 

5. Create user OPS$ORAXXX identified externally externally default tablespace SYSTEM temporary Tablespace PSAPREMP; 

6. Create user OPS$XXXADM identified externally externally default tablespace SYSTEM temporary Tablespace PSAPREMP; 

7. Create user OPS$SAPSERVICEXXX identified externally externally default tablespace SYSTEM temporary Tablespace PSAPREMP; 

8. Grant DBA, Connect, Resource to OPS$XXXADM; 

9. Grant exp_full_database to OPS$ORAXXX; 




13. Commit; 

14. @Sapmnt/xxx/exe/sapconn_role.sql (it will disconnect SQLPLUS) 

15.sqlplus / as sysdba; 

16. @Sapmnt/xxx/exe/sapdba_role.sql SR3 (it will disconnect SQLPLUS) 

17. logout 

18. su - xxxadm 

19. R3Trans -d 

Step 5 Drop PRD tables & reimport the exported tables of the old system. 


  • 1.sqlplus / as sysdba;

  • 2.@/oracle/xxx/batch-table-drop.sql;

  • 3.Drop table sapsr3.USER_DIR;

  • 4. imp

  • 6.sapsr3

  • 7.*******

Step 6 After importing Old table data login to SAP & do post stepsSE06 

  • Database copy or database migration

  • Do u want to reinstall CTS--> yes

  • Source system of Database copy--> XXP

  • Change original from XXP to XXX

  • Change the transport System not configured--> ok

  • Do u want to Change original from XXP to XXX --> YES

  • Delete TMS Configuration--> NO

  • Delete the original version of transport routes--> NO

SAP How To

Step 7 STMS: Restore as old system

  • System: XXX

  • Description: XXX SAndbox

  • Save

Step 8 BDLS: New logical system Name: xxxclnt500 

  • Conversion of client dependent and client independent Tables

  • Table to be converted: **

  • Continue with conversion Anyway. YES

Step 9 Import user master 

SAP Help

Step 10 Delete cancelled and Finished jobs 

  • Go to SE38 Run RSBTCDEL. Execute in Background -> Create a Variant named “REFRESH” with the following properties:

  • Jobs from all users (*), Days 01, Fill three boxes at the bottom with ‘X’.

  • Be sure to check ‘delete with forced mode’

  • Save the variant, go a step back and click “Execute Immediately.”

SAP How To


The Refresh process will provide latest data in quality or pre-production environment which will helpful in rectifying error before production. I recommend to perform this activity every quarter or before any major changes and go live. 

Explanation of FI Line Item Texts created by Material Ledger

Explanation of FI Line Item Texts created by Material Ledger.png

If you use Material Ledger’s Actual Costing, then you would know that the Post Closing Step creates accounting documents depending on how the variances for the Material have been distributed. For example, a material with a price (or exchange rate) difference of $100 could be sold, scrapped, used in a production order that is complete, used in a production order that is not complete, transferred to another plant, or left in inventory. And this only refers to the differences that are created on the material itself (single-level), and not the differences that are transferred from other materials (multilevel) which have their own slew of Material Ledger postings. 

Because of this, it is easy to be overwhelmed by the volume of postings that are created by the Material Ledger’s closing entry and what they mean. Some companies choose to label the General ledger accounts appropriately to indicate what the posting is for, but if you do not understand the posting, it is easy to incorrectly label the General Ledger account. Also, you may not need a separate general ledger account for each scenario as that may lead to more General Ledger accounts than you need, and may create even more confusion.

Believe it or not, SAP does try to provide guidance on what each Material Ledger posting is for. It does so by inserting texts into each line item posting to indicate what it is (as described in SAP Note 2397606). The problem, is that these text explanations are sometimes cryptic and do not provide much clarity on what the posting is for. Also, there is very little information (online or elsewhere) that gives a more meaningful explanation for these text descriptions.

In the table below, I will try to explain (as best as I can) what texts are shown in the FI line items created by Material Ledger and what they mean.

SAP Material Ledger
SAP Material Ledger

SAP Net Present Value/Mark-to-Market

SAP Consulting

Many users wonder how SAP calculates the Net Present Value or Mark-to-market figures in transaction JBRX. This post seeks to help users gain an understanding and interpret the results that are generated when one executes the transaction.


An investment transaction generates a series of future cash-flows and the Net Present Value (NPV) is the present value of future cash-flows.


Invest in a €500000 Fixed Term Deposit for one year at a monthly interest rate of 12%.

SAP Help

Cash-flows are calculated as below:

SAP Consulting

To calculate the NPV use transaction code JBRX.

SAP Help

On the selection screen, enter the following information:

  1. Evaluation Currency

  2. Evaluation Type- This carries the relevant evaluation parameters that will be used in the calculation of the NPV.

  3. Evaluation Date- This is the date that determines the market data that will be used in the NPV calculation.

  4. Horizon- This is a future date on which future cash-flows are discounted. The horizon date must be greater than the evaluation date.

You can also select to run the NPV analysis using simulated transactions and you can limit the NPV Analysis bases on different characteristics, for example transaction number.

Once you are happy with your selection criteria, you click Execute.

SAP Help

The system now displays the transaction which we entered in the selection characteristics and both the Nominal amount and the NPV amount are displayed as below:

SAP Help

Highlight the transaction and click on Detail log to view the yield curves that have been used in the NPV calculation. The Yield Curve Framework is used to maintain reference interest rates and enter their values. On the basis of the reference interest rates, you can create yield curves to help you determine mark-to-market net present values with the price calculator.

SAP Help

This transaction will be discounted based on the reference interest rates maintained on yield curve 1002.

SAP Help

For detailed calculation parameters, click on the transaction again and select the icon Calculation Bases.

SAP Help

The Calculation Bases screen first shows the fixed cash-flows based on the fixed interest rate of 12% maintained on the transaction. The cash-flows are calculated based on the Interest calculation method specified on the transaction, Act/365 in this case. For the first cash-flow calculation would be: €500,000.00*12 %*( 28/365) =4602.74.

SAP Help

For the NPV Calculation, the system takes the Discounting Factor calculated based on the 1002 yield curve values and applies that to the fixed cash-flow. For the first line, the calculation would be:

€4602.74*0.9999500264= €4600.44

SAP Help

These discounted cash-flows are then added up and the total NPV of the transaction is €549,570.36.

Introducing New Asset Accounting in S/4 HANA

Get the background on New Asset Accounting and S/4HANA, and run through some of the key changes that were introduced which distinguish it from Classic Asset Accounting. Next, we will go into some more detail on some of the larger areas, for example how the depreciation areas work with the ledgers to record the different accounting principles.  You may already have heard of the Universal Journal, which is one of the biggest innovations in Finance in S/HANA. We will explain what that is and how New Asset Accounting integrates with it and how the new asset transactions work. I will also run through the depreciation and finally I will briefly touch on the migration of assets.

SAP Functional Optimization

Need and ways to optimize your SAP system.

  1. How customers have suffered from a lack of proper utilization of SAP.
  2. Examples of how a deviation from Best Practices could adversely impact an organization.
  3. Methodology that should be used when performing an optimization project.
  4. How a proper system optimization will help companies with migrating to S/4 HANA 5.

SAP PS Functionality and Integration

SAP Project Systems

This article covers the basic functionality of Project Systems and how it relates in MRP to PS and other logistic integration.

Project System is a highly integrated module whose purpose is more for consolidation and reports.

As its name suggest, it is project oriented, something that has a timeline and will end that you want to track by breakdown basis. Though there are cases where we can just make the project as a receiver for a departmental cost for example, RnD of 2016.

There are 6 main setups for PS

  1. Costing – Project that exist only for the purpose of planning costs at WBS level.

  2. Assets – Project that receive Capital funds from Investment Programs.

  3. Sales – Project that are customer focused.

  4. Manufacturing – Project that are Material / Logistic focused.

  5. Statistical – Project that do not plan or receive costs.

  6. Maintenance – Project that exist for managing Equipment.

Different setup caters for the different industry and usages of the module. Each will have a different configuration and integration with other module. In terms of functionality, PS is used to:

  1. Receive and consolidate Costs and Revenue in WBS (leveled and labeled) manner. A WBS is a CO Object, thus can be a receiver for settlement.

  2. Act as Planning tool for project schedule

  3. Act as demand management

  4. Act as investment and asset management

  5. For logistic execution in term of procurement and scheduling.

For No 2, companies will normally use MS Project to do the scheduling and interface it with SAP PS. There is also a standard interface available that can easily integrate these two applications (Open PS)    

SAP Help

To illustrate the core functionality of Cost & Revenue allocation, (example above) where you want to categorize the cost of building a car into 3 categories. You can easily separate and are able to see the breakdown of the cost of the car by building this structure.

SAP Consulting

You can then attach a network to the engine WBS. With this network we can create activities which enable the creation of elements, where the logistic activities are maintained, as you can see in the picture above.

  1. Work – Defines the internal work done by your own labor. This will use a Work Center and activity type to determine the cost. The rate can be maintain in KP26 (Activity type/Price Planning).

  2. External – Defines the external work done by contractors, outside the company. This will require Vendor, Outline Agreement(optional) and cost element. Price is maintained manually.

  3. Costs – Defines auxiliary costs. This will use a cost element and cost is entered directly.

  4. Service – Defines work/ services using a service master.

  5. Material Component – Specifies the activity requires a Material, and demand will be entered. Based on the MRP View 2 – Procurement Type, purchase requisition / planned order will be created.

SAP Expert

  By putting the Material component into the network activity, it will act as a demand for the material.

There are 5 default standard options to choose from

  1. PEV will enter the demand as PIR and become stock for the WBS. 

  2. PF will trigger purchase requisition its for non stock. Meaning it will be consumed upon GR.

  3. PFS is the same as PF, except its to be deliver directly to the customer or an address. You can choose to select customer address / vendor address or any location from central address management.

  4. PFV will enter the demand as PIR, but its non-stock.

  5. WE will also enter demand as PIR, stock item, at Plant level.

SAP Help

You can see the config in SPRO-Project System-Material-Procurement-Define Procurement Indicators for Material Components.  

SAP Help

By putting 2 KG Demand with requirement date 10.08.2017, it will transfer as a PIR and we can view in MD04 as below.

SAP Consultant

Run MRP and the system will generate procurement proposals.

For investment and asset management, it is mostly used in Oil and Gas industry where the project is a AuC (Asset under construction) which when completed, will become Fixed Asset and starts depreciation.

In conclusion, Project System core function is for Revenue / Cost reporting, however it also can be integrated with logistic functionalities and from there derives the project in all aspects. It’s a highly useful module for a company that operates on Project Basis. Below is an example of Customer Project Setup (uses Cost, Sales and Manufacturing setup). 

SAP Help

Project created with WBS and network. Cost planning, logistic, revenue are done. Baseline budget is set and project is executed. Project runs and confirmation, Goods Receipts starts. This will be repeated until project ends. From there customer can be billed based on the Sales Order using Milestone/Billing plan. Settlement done at the end for closing. If additional items are requested from customer, the whole process will retrigger with different SO and WBS (can be in the same project). After project delivery, warranty period will starts and any cost incur will be collected under warranty. Warranty ends and settlement is done at the end of the project closing.

To be a Savvy Professional You Need SAP Training

SAP Training Help

By Lori Moriarty at Michael Management Corporation

If you want to stay relevant as a technically savvy professional, you need continuing SAP training.


Because SAP is the 500-pound gorilla of ERP software. According to SAP they have over 350,000 customers in 180 countries and 15,000 partner companies worldwide. 87% of Forbes Global 2000 are SAP customers. There you go. Odds are high that you are going to be working for a company that has SAP.


Are you currently an SAP end user?

Great. Now it is time to be trained. Many companies use peer-to-peer training methods to get the new end users up and running. Though it may be enough to get the job done, there is so much more to learn. Imagine being able to use menu short-cuts that you did not know exist. With proper training, you can become your department’s Super User and position yourself for a promotion or raise based on your new level of proficiency. There may be a better (i.e. faster) way to do your reports and queries. You may never know these processes exist until you take an SAP training course.


Looking for a new position or a new job?

Your supervisors and future hiring managers will look at your SAP qualifications. Yes, of course, it is great to have experience as an SAP end use user. It is even better to show you went above and beyond and got professional skills training. You can take training for your specific career field. If you are in the human resources field, then earn a certificate as an HR AdministratorHR Manager or HR Payroll Manager. This kind of training is what will put your resume above the rest.


Want an impressive resume on LinkedIn?

Then just upload that hard-earned SAP Training certificate and let them know exactly how serious you are about your career. When you become a Certified SAP Professional, your credentials can be verified on-line by a third party. Remember to continuously update your LinkedIn profile as you change positions and take on more job duties. Reach out to others in your field and build your network because you never know who may be hiring. When you add your new SAP Certification be sure that your “share profile changes” button is in the ON position so that everyone can see your updates.


How would you like to make more money?

According to SAP Certified consultants earn more than consultants without certification. 137 consultants with SAP training reported their earnings at $75K to $126K and 122 SAP consultants who did not have SAP training or certification reported $49K to $78K. Does this mean that the consultants without training are bad? Of course not, they may be even better at the job than some of the higher paid consultants. The point here is that perception is key. More training looks better.


What is motivating you to start continue your SAP training?

Units of Measure and Their Behavior Inside Custom ABAP Code


One topic that is important in SD, but is often overlooked is the use of units of measure in custom ABAP programming.  In SAP, units of measure are stored in a series of tables that begin with T006:

SAP Answers

The table which controls various language translations of a unit of measure is table T006A.  I’ll explain more on that shortly.

SAP does a lot of work behind the scenes that most developers rarely ever see.  When calling up any item in SAP, a delivery for example, SAP will perform conversions of their data before displaying it to the user.  This is done for several fields, but one of those fields is the unit of measure of the delivery item.  SAP will convert the unit into what’s known as the external, or commercial unit of measure.   This is the unit of measure that is displayed to the user.  On the flipside, when a user enters a unit of measure into the delivery item and saves that data, SAP assumes that the user is entering the unit as the external or commercial unit of measure and will convert that entry into the internal unit of measure, or the unit of measure that is stored in SAP.

The difference between the internal and external units of measure are sometimes very hard to distinguish as they often look the same in English.  What it boils down to is that the internal unit of measure is language independent, meaning that it is the same in ALL languages. The external or commercial unit of measure varies depending upon the language it is being viewed from.  A developer may never know this when dealing with units such as KG or M2 because these are typically stored the same way in all languages.

SAP Answers

In the example above, the first unit is the internal unit, while the second unit (MSEH3) is the commercial unit.  Both the internal and commercial units are the same in all languages.  The problem begins to occur with units that vary in different languages.

One example is a crate.  In German, a crate is “Kiste”, so the internal unit of measure is “KI”.  Since SAP is a German system, the commercial unit is also “KI”.  However, in English, we would not identify it as a “KI”, but rather something like “CRT”.  We now have a difference.  Also, in this example, the Japanese unit is in kanji:

SAP Answers

One mistake a developer may do is create a custom field using the external, or commercial unit of measure.  Another is to define a unit of measure variable as a CHAR3 with the intent of writing this value to a text file.  This will cause the field to take the form of whatever is found in the table.  If a user has pulled this data straight from a delivery and writes it directly to the CHAR3 variable, SAP hasn’t converted that text yet, and because the data has been assigned a variable without a conversion exit, it never will be converted. 

For illustration purposes, I built a custom program and table.  This program takes an input, and writes the data to the screen.  Here are few examples. 

SAP Answers

Note that I’ve entered the commercial unit of measure here.

SAP Answers

What just happened?  The unit of measure was converted when assigned the field in the table to be added to the database, however, when it was written to a character variable, it was not converted back before output.

SAP Answers

This example writes the unit of measure from the internal unit of measure field

SAP Answers

Again, what happens here is that SAP converts it to the internal unit so that it can store the correct value in the table, however, before it is written to the screen, it is converted to the commercial unit of measure automatically.

SAP Answers
SAP Answers

Simply put, the reason this happened is because the commercial unit of measure (MSEH3) does not contain a user exit.  Therefore, when the converted unit of measure is assigned to this field, it is currently in its internal format, and does not get converted to it external format.  The issue is that SAP will not automatically perform this conversion when assigning values to variables without the proper conversion exit.

Let’s take another issue that can occur with improper conversions.  This can be seen when a developer writes a custom program to mass load data into a table.  As an example, I made modifications to my existing program to also store records.  

As you can see, when you look at the records SE16N, the new record from the above example appears. 

SAP Answers

However, when attempting to find the record:

SAP Answers

This is caused by storing the improper unit of measure here.  The commercial unit was not converted before it was added to the database.  So, when running SE16N, when the user enters the unit of measure in the search criteria, SAP automatically converts that into the internal unit of measure.  Since the commercial unit is the one that got stored, SAP cannot find a match.

When writing custom programs, a developer must take caution when dealing with units of measure.  In many cases, it will be responsibility of the developer to perform the conversion of the units manually, especially when failing to use the correct variable with the conversion exit built in.  Fortunately, SAP is good at providing the needed tools to accomplish this.  From SE11, the data element for the internal unit of measure(MSEHI) has the domain MEINS.

SAP Help

Double clicking the domain name and clicking on the definition tab will show the conversion routing of the data element.

SAP Consulting

In this example, it is “CUNIT”.  Double-clicking the conversion routine name will show the INPUT and OUTPUT conversion routines for this field. 

SAP Answers

The typical naming convention of a conversion routine is “CONVERSION_EXIT_” followed by the conversion exit name, followed by a final piece to explain the purpose of the function.

For example, CONVERSION_EXIT_CUNIT_OUTPUT is the conversion exit used to convert an internal unit of measure to the commercial unit for user display, while CONVERSION_EXIT_CUNIT_INPUT is the conversion exit used to convert a commercial unit entered by the user to the SAP internal unit of measure when used for storage.  As a rule of thumb, OUTPUT is used data is written to a screen, document, etc.  While INPUT is used when using that data as input for interacting with SAP table data.

When using the conversion exit for units of measure, one key piece of information is the language.  When using the conversion exits, it is best to avoid constants for the language and to use the system variable SY-LANGU.  This will always provide the logon language when converting units of measure.

Going back to our example, I’ve added the needed conversion routines to my code.  Now, let’s run the report again:

SAP Help

As you can see, both the internal and external units of measure show correctly, and SE16 is able to successfully find the record.

It’s a little confusing at first to distinguish between the internal and external units of measure, but after some time, this will become very clear and will allow for any custom development to handle unit of measure information coming and going.

Finance Differences in SAP S/4HANA



This article covers some of the differences between S/4HANA and previous versions of SAP

Simple Finance was the first part of the Business Suite to be rewritten to run on SAP’s new superfast in-memory HANA database. Simple Logistics followed, and the combined new product, with New GL and New Asset Accounting as prerequisite, became known as S/4HANA.

S/4HANA exists as the S/4HANA Cloud which is a standardized Multi-Tenanted Cloud (i.e. all customers share the same software instance although the data is secure and private). This comes with a mandatory Fiori user interface, quarterly releases, and bespoke programming is not possible as you are sharing your system with others. There is also the On-premise S/4HANA with greater flexibility, freedom to customize as before, and optional Fiori and annual releases.

The exact functionality will vary depending on the release, and this article is mostly based on S/4HANA 1610, which is the October 2016 On-premise release, although some of the functionality below may already be available in the later enhancement packs of ECC6. I have used print screens mainly from the GUI to help users to compare the functionality, but mostly the Fiori apps are quite similar.

A lot of the ECC6 functionality is still available in S/4HANA in the SAP GUI; sometimes transactions are enhanced and easily recognized and both the old and new co-exist (e.g. FAGLL03 and FAGLL03H), and sometimes you are redirected to new functionality automatically (e.g. FK01->BP). It seems where the letter H is added at the end of the transaction, it tends to be a new S/4HANA specific transaction, the letter N has often been added to new transactions anyway, including those introduced with the New GL (and some are already available in later versions of ECC). The letter L at the end of some transactions seems to allow posting to different ledgers e.g. FB01 and FB01L as well as a lot of the new asset transactions, but these are just guidelines not strict rules.


Described as the new User-Experience, Fiori replaces most of the SAP GUI transactions, resembling the more user-friendly Smartphone apps instead of the traditional SAP GUI menu structure. Fiori is available on multiple devices i.e. desktops, phones, tablets etc. Informative, interactive apps are available so you can already see the number of outstanding items, or account balances on the face of the Fiori app before you click on it to drilldown further, see Figure 1. Some apps have graphs, calendars (e.g. leave requests), pie charts etc. and the launch pad can contain customized apps and also personas transactions in the same style as the Fiori apps.

Figure 1 Two Fiori Tiles

Figure 1 Two Fiori Tiles

Ledgers and Currencies

In addition to the normal parallel ledgers which were introduced with the New GL, there are now Extension Ledgers (original called appendix ledgers). The difference is that with an additional parallel ledger, postings are physically made to both the leading ledger and the parallel ledger, with only adjustments made to the parallel ledger, whereas extension ledgers have to be linked to a base ledger and only take delta postings. Therefore, when you run a report for the extension ledger it pulls in both the base ledger and the extension ledger to show you the complete picture. The extension ledgers however cannot be used in asset accounting.

There are now 8 additional freely definable currencies available, although they may not all be available in other modules and a conversion project would be required to ensure historical data is dealt with appropriately.

Data structure

HANA has the power to calculate on the fly, which means that for financial transactions, index tables such as BSIS, BSAS, BSID, BSAD, BSIK, BSAK, BSIM, FAGLBSIS and FAGLBSAS, as well as aggregate tables such as GLT0, GLT3, FAGLFLEXT, KNC1, LFC1, KNC3, LFC3, COSS, COSP are no longer required and have been removed.  FAGLFLEXA and some other New GL tables are now obsolete and there are also new customizing tables.

However, if you have your own ABAP reports using these tables, don’t worry as there are now Compatibility views with the same name, which recalculate the same values as the tables would have had, allowing any bespoke programs reading the information to continue to function. There are new tools which you can run prior to migration, which allow you to check which of your bespoke programs are read only and will continue to function and which need rewriting. In any case you may find that some of your bespoke programs are no longer required because that functionality is now available as standard, or that it will be more efficient to rewrite them using the new tables anyway.

Universal journal

This is the name of the enhanced financial document in S/4HANA. A Universal Journal is created whenever anything is posted to Finance from any module and each journal can be displayed as before using the display document transaction FB03. Many of the journal entry, invoice entry and other posting transactions are still available in the SAP GUI, so you can still for example use FB50 or FB50L (by ledger) to post a journal, although the Fiori equivalents are more user-friendly. The Universal Journal is the Single Source of Truth for finance, Controlling and COPA, and includes all the cost objects traditionally found in Controlling such as cost centers, internal orders and WBS elements as well as columns for the standard CO-PA characteristics and up to fifty additional characteristics. See also the next section on merging Finance and Controlling. New reports are available, mainly in Fiori, but the old Controlling reports continue to work (using compatibility views), including those for planning

ACDOCA is the name of the Finance module’s important new S/4HANA table, which is based on the Universal Journal line items, containing all of the financial fields, as well as a lot of information from other modules. Figure 2 shows an extract of the ACDOCA table showing some of the asset and material ledger fields available. 

Figure 2 ACDOCA Table Showing Some of the Fields

Figure 2 ACDOCA Table Showing Some of the Fields

Single Source of Truth

Finance and Controlling are now merged, getting rid of data redundancies and the need for reconciliations, and making visible the internal CO actual postings in FI as well. The real-time FI-CO integration is also obsolete and Controlling data is stored in the new finance table ACDOCA. 

To have only one field available in the Universal Journal for both the GL account and cost element numbers, the cost elements are contained inside the GL account master records. To achieve this, there are now four types of GL account, instead of the previous two, i.e. Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss - see Figure 3.

Figure 3 GL Account Type

Figure 3 GL Account Type

If you select Primary or Secondary Costs as the GL account type, then on the Control Data tab you will see Controlling Area settings such as the cost element category (see Figure 4). The dropdown options in Figure 4 are based on choosing primary costs as the GL account type. Categories relating to secondary costs are available if you choose the secondary costs GL account type. Cost element groups are still available.

Figure 4 Cost Element Category

Figure 4 Cost Element Category

Default account assignments from the cost elements are automatically migrated to the OKB9 configuration transaction and configuring cost object defaults in OKB9 is the only option going forwards.


An additional column appears in Transaction OB52 (opening and closing periods) for postings from Controlling to Finance, (although you still need OKP1 at Controlling Area level), and you have the option of selecting the posting period variant prior to entering the time interval screen.

Account-based profitability analysis must be activated but you can still use costing-based profitability analysis in parallel.  Initially realignment was not supported but this has been brought in with release 1610.

Enhanced Search

If you click on the colored icon at the far right of the top menu bar in the S/4HANA GUI and choose options (see Figure 5), then go to Interaction Design->Visualization 2 you can choose whether to use the enhanced search or not, or only with a keyboard shortcut (Ctrl + Shift + Q), see Figure 6.

Figure 5 GUI Options Menu

Figure 5 GUI Options Menu

Figure 6 Enhanced Search Functionality Settings

Figure 6 Enhanced Search Functionality Settings

The enhanced search functionality can be used in many places, for example in the vendor line item report to find the vendor by name (Figure 7), by vendor number (Figure 8) by postcode, country, search term or anything else available on that specific enhanced search screen. If you search for example for a material (Figure 9) you will see different search options.  


Figure 7 Enhanced Search Using Name

Figure 7 Enhanced Search Using Name

Figure 8 Enhanced Search Using Vendor Number

Figure 8 Enhanced Search Using Vendor Number

Figure 9 Enhanced Search for Material

Figure 9 Enhanced Search for Material

Vendors and Customers

Customers and vendors can only be maintained using the Business Partner functionality (of which there is of course a Fiori equivalent) and if you try to use the old codes e.g. FK01/2/3 or XK01/2/3 to create/amend/display a vendor or FD01/2/3 and XD01/2/3 to create/amend display a customer you will be redirected to transaction BP. 

Many of the screens are fairly similar to the old master data transactions, but a lot more data is available and one Business Partner may have roles in MM, SD, and FI. Employees, banks and other contacts can also be set up as Business Partners. Multiple relationships can be specified and new time dependent data is available for e.g. addresses and bank data. See Figure 10 and Figure 11. You will need to migrate your customers and vendors to Business Partners as part of the migration if you are not already using them.

Figure 10 Business Partner Payment Tab

Figure 10 Business Partner Payment Tab

Figure 11 Business Partner Identification Tab

Figure 11 Business Partner Identification Tab

Figure 12 Business Partner Relationship contact example

Figure 12 Business Partner Relationship contact example

Line Item Reports

The old reports, such as FBL1N, FBL5N and FAGLL03 still exist alongside FBL1H, FBL5H and FAGLL03H which have slightly different screens. The selection screen is quite similar, although note that the additional selections button (the red, green and blue stripy one) now appears halfway down the selection screen instead of at the top and is labelled Restrictions. Once you execute the report however, things look somewhat different and the line items start off summarized by period.

Figure 13 Transaction FBL1H

Figure 13 Transaction FBL1H

If you want to see the line items you need to select the lines that you want to see and click on the icon on the right call line item report. This will take you to your normal FBL1N screen.  In Figure 14,  I chose only the last period, i.e. period 6 in 2017 containing one row, (the cleared payment for the previous period). In Figure 15, I chose period 12, 2017 to show the other display setting in FBL1N. (to toggle between the two, go to Settings-> Switch List in the top menu in the line item display).

Figure 14 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

Figure 14 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

Figure 15 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

Figure 15 Vendor Line Item Display Called from FBL1H

By clicking on the vendor number in the body of the report, you will be redirected to the vendor master data (held in the Business Partner transaction) 

Credit Management

FSCM replaces the previous Accounts Receivable credit management transactions (e.g. F.28/F.31/F.32/F.33/FD32) and the Sales transactions (VKM3/VKM5). If you are not already familiar with FSCM, this already used the Business Partner functionality prior to S/4HANA and has additional functionality, in areas such as Credit Management, Collections Management (including collection worklists), Dispute Management. It also has additional reporting and allows you to import external credit information. 


The Material Ledger is mandatory (although Actual Costing is still optional) and there are also new tables for material documents (MATDOC), a Cost of Goods Sold variance split and no locking of tables. The material number field is extended from 18 to 40 characters and this information is available in the Universal Journal document, and therefore the ACDOCA table for reporting in finance. Note that the extended material functionality can be switched off if for example you have a multi-system landscape.

Global trade Services (GTS)

GTS replaces the foreign trade functionality in Sales and Procurement. This allows the pulling in of data from different systems, and is extensively integrated with SD and MM. 

Revenue Recognition

Only the new Revenue Accounting and Reporting, which supports IFRS15, is available in S/4HANA, i.e. the SD Revenue and Recognition is no longer available.


The Legacy System Migration Workbench is still available in S/4HANA, but it is not recommended for migrations as it has not been amended for the new data structures, and some functionality is not available e.g. transaction recordings cannot be made with the Fiori transactions. 

The Maintenance Planner tool has to be used for a system conversion, which among other things, checks add-ons, active business functions and industry solutions to ensure that they can be converted.

Central Finance

Central Finance is a new concept introduced with S/4HANA. It allows users with a large and distributed landscape to replicate both SAP and non-SAP finance data real-time to a central S/4HANA system, but still allowing drilldown to the original document in the SAP systems.

Cash Management

There is a suite of programs, Cash Operations, Bank Account Management (BAM) and Liquidity Management that replace the classic cash and liquidity management, and you can centrally manage the actual and forecast cash positions from SAP and non-SAP systems by using the One Exposure operations Hub. Transactions such as FF7A and FF7B (cash management and liquidity forecast) are now Fiori apps.

House banks and house bank accounts, which are now master data, can be managed by users in Fiori, along with banks hierarchies or groupings, overdraft limits, signatories and approvals flows and additional reporting such as the foreign bank account report, helps compliancy. The hierarchy uses the bank business partner role

Bank accounts can also be downloaded and uploaded to and from Excel, for reporting, migrations and mass changes. They are created in the productive system, but still need to be replicated to the development and quality assurance systems etc. as configuration for payments and bank statements still needs to be made in the development system and moved through quality to production as usual.

If you don’t want to implement the full Bank Account Management (BAM), then Basic Cash management is also available, previously known as BAM Lite. 

Other Fiori apps available include for cash operations include the Incoming bank statements monitor, cash payments and approvals, cash position reports, transfers, cash pooling. 

Figure 22 Examples of a Few Bank Management Apps in Fiori

Figure 22 Examples of a Few Bank Management Apps in Fiori

FI12_HBANK is the SAP GUI transaction for the user that replaces the House Bank icon in the customizing transaction FBZP, (see Figure 23), although you will find more functionality in the Fiori App such as the hierarchies and groupings. After entering the company code on the first screen you can display, amend or create new house banks.

Figure 23FI12_HBANK - House Bank Transaction in SAP GUI

Figure 23FI12_HBANK - House Bank Transaction in SAP GUI

New Asset Accounting

Depreciation Areas - You still have the choice of using the parallel ledgers brought in by the New GL or accounting for different accounting principles using a different range of GL accounts. However, even if you use different accounts for the different accounting principles, you still need to set them up in asset accounting as dummy ledgers.   You no longer need to set up delta depreciation areas where you have additional accounting principles, but you do need to have a one to one match for each currency and ledger in Finance with a depreciation area in Asset Accounting.

The depreciation areas are now equal (i.e. depreciation area 1 does not have to be the leading ledger) and transaction ASKB, (post additional depreciation areas periodically to finance), has been removed because you can post all depreciation areas to Finance in real-time if required.  Because all the postings are real-time, you can navigate and drill down to most of the financial documents not just those in depreciation area 1. 

Postings – As with finance, a lot of the tables are now redundant and a lot of the asset information comes across via the Universal Journal in table ACDOCA. The asset balance sheet accounts are now all reconciliation accounts – even those in the additional depreciation areas, which prevents manual postings that are not updating the assets. The depreciation run posting has been improved and the depreciation journal contains asset information at line item detail so in the GL line item report you can see the amounts by asset, see Figure 16

Figure 16 Depreciation Account in GL Account Line Item Display

Figure 16 Depreciation Account in GL Account Line Item Display

You can also drilldown to the asset accounting from the finance document (click on asset accounting icon in Figure 17) to see the postings by ledger group. 

Figure 17 Finance Document for Asset Acquisition

Figure 17 Finance Document for Asset Acquisition

In Figure 18, you can see the Technical Clearing account functionality. This is required to post the other depreciation areas in real-time, whilst allowing the flexibility to post each asset differently in each ledger. Some accounts, for example vendors, customers, GRIR account and tax accounts cannot be posted to unilaterally i.e. in one ledger and not others. Therefore, the acquisition or retirement posting is split into at least two documents. The first is called the operational posting and has a blank ledger group i.e. it posts equally to all ledgers. 

The posting for an acquisition is credit vendor and debit technical clearing account. The second, valuating posting, then posts between the technical clearing account and the asset with a separate document for each ledger.  To get to the posting for the additional ledgers and currencies, you have to click on the A/P Currency icon (which stands for Accounting Principle/Currency) and you can see the document in Figure 22 shares the same operational posting with document 1900000019 but has a different valuating posting with document 7000000073 instead of 100000048 which was the document number for the leading ledger.

Figure 18 Figure 14 Drilldown to Ledger Postings by Asset

Figure 18 Figure 14 Drilldown to Ledger Postings by Asset

Figure 19 Asset Acquisition, Parallel Ledger Posting

Figure 19 Asset Acquisition, Parallel Ledger Posting

Accounting Principle and Depreciation Area are new fields now available in many new transactions (e.g. ABZOL instead of ABZO, or ABUML instead of ABUM and so on), so there is no longer a need for depreciation area specific transaction types.

Settlement rules can also be ledger specific if required, see example in Figure 20

Figure 20 Ledger Specific Settlement Rules

Figure 20 Ledger Specific Settlement Rules

Year-End – this is now carried forward as part of the finance transaction FAGLGVTR, in other words both the general ledger and assets are carried forward together 

Statistical postings – instead of statistical cost elements with cost category 90 there is now a special field in the GL account master record only in fixed asset and material reconciliation accounts called Apply Acct Assignments Statistically in Fixed Asset Acct/Material Acct.

Figure 21 Asset Statistical Account Assignment

Figure 21 Asset Statistical Account Assignment

I have written more about New Asset Accounting in my latest E-Bite Introducing New Asset Accounting in SAP S/4HANA – you can find out more at which is a short cut to the SAP Press site. This book covers how new asset accounting works in S/4HANA and is aimed at users who are new to SAP as well as those migrating from earlier versions of SAP.